Vintage

____   ___.__        __                        
\   \ /   |__| _____/  |______    ____   ____  
 \   Y   /|  |/    \   __\__  \  / ___\_/ __ \ 
  \     / |  |   |  |  |  / __ \/ /_/  \  ___/ 
   \___/  |__|___|  |__| (____  \___  / \___  >
                  \/          \/_____/      \/
*********

Welcome to Project 64!

The goal of Project 64 is to preserve Commodore 64 related documents
in electronic text format that might otherwise cease to exist with the
rapid advancement of computer technology and declining interest in 8-
bit computers on the part of the general population. If you would like
to help by converting C64 related hardcopy documents to electronic
texts please contact the manager of Project 64, Cris Berneburg, at
74171.2136@compuserve.com.

Extensive efforts were made to preserve the contents of the original
document.  However, certain portions, such as diagrams, program
listings, and indexes may have been either altered or sacrificed due
to the limitations of plain vanilla text.  Diagrams may have been
eliminated where ASCII-art was not feasible.  Program listings may be
missing display codes where substitutions were not possible.  Tables
of contents and indexes may have been changed from page number
references to section number references. Please accept our apologies
for these limitations, alterations, and possible omissions.

Document names are limited to the 8.3 file convention of DOS. The
first characters of the file name are an abbreviation of the original
document name. The version number of the etext follows next. After
that a letter may appear to indicate the particular source of the
document. Finally, the document is given a .TXT extension.

The author(s) of the original document and members of Project 64 make
no representations about the accuracy or suitability of this material
for any purpose.  This etext is provided "as-is".  Please refer to the
warantee of the original document, if any, that may included in this
etext.  No other warantees, express or implied, are made to you as to
the etext or any medium it may be on.  Neither the author(s) nor the
members of Project 64 will assume liability for damages either from
the direct or indirect use of this etext or from the distribution of
or modification to this etext.

*********

The Project 64 etext of the Commodore 64 User's Guide. Converted to
etext by Frank Jeno Kontros <jeno@kontr.uzhgorod.ua>, the Non Stop
Cracker.

C64USG10.TXT, September 1996, etext #91.

*********

Note: To extract the ascii text basic programs all at once from this
etext use "tok64" by Cris Berneburg <74171.2136@compuserve.com>. Or to
extract the uuencoded basic programs all at once use "uud" by Edwin
Kremer <edwin@zlotty>.

*********

  There  was a great work,  but finally,  after 2 weeks of correcting and
formatting  the  text to the format what you now see, it is ready. I hope
that  this  manual  is  the  second  greatest project after COMMDODORE 64
PROGRAMMER'S REFERENCE GUIDE.  It  is  dedicated to C64 users who haven't
the original manual or buy 64 without it. Enjoy it!
  Generally it is the original US manual with all programs  and  near all
pictures.  There was many bugs & mispells corrected by me. Also the index
now is more usable instead original.
  If you find errors in the text,  please report them so that they can be
fixed. There should not be many, though...

Frank Kontros, The Non Stop Cracker, jeno@kontr.uzhgorod.ua

*********

COMMODORE 64 USER'S GUIDE
   _____
  /  ___|___
 |  /   |__/  c o m m o d o r e
 |  \___|__\  C O M P U T E R
  \_____|

USER'S MANUAL STATEMENT

  "This  equipment  generates  and  uses  radio  frequency  energy and if
not  installed  and used properly, that is, in strict accordance with the
manufacturer's   instructions,   may  cause  interference  to  radio  and
television  reception.  It  has been type tested and found to comply with
the  limits  for  a  Class  B  computing  device  in  accordance with the
specifications  in  Subpart J of Part 15 of FCC rules, which are designed
to   provide   reasonable   protection  against  such  interference  in a
residential   installation.   However,   there   is   no  guarantee  that
interference  will  not  occur  in  a  particular  installation.  If this
equipment  does  cause  interference  to  radio  or television reception,
which  can  be  determined  by turning the equipment off and on, the user
is  encouraged  to  try to correct the interference by one or more of the
following measures:

    - reorient the receiving antenna,

    - relocate the computer with respect to the receiver,

    - move the computer away from the receiver,

    - plug  the  computer  into  a  different outlet so that computer and
      receiver are on different branch circuits.

"If  necessary,  the  user  should  consult  the dealer or an experienced
radio/television  technician  for  additional  suggestions.  The user may
find  the  following  booklet  prepared  by  the  Federal  Communications
Commission  helpful:  'How  to Identify and Resolve Radio-TV Interference
Problems.'  This  booklet  is available from the U.S. Government Printing
Office, Washington, D.C. 20402, Stock No. 004-000-00345-4."


COMMODORE 64 USER'S GUIDE

Published by
Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
and
Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.


FIRST EDITION
THIRD PRINTING-1983

Copyright (C) 1982 by Commodore Business Machines, Inc.
All rights reserved.

This manual is copyrighted and contains proprietary information.  No part
of this publication may be reproduced,  stored in a retrieval system,  or
transmitted  in  any  form  or  by  any  means,  electronic,  mechanical,
photocopying,   recording,   or  otherwise,  without  the  prior  written
permission of COMMODORE BUSINESS MACHINES, Inc.


TABLE OF CONTENTS

INTRODUCTION

1. SETUP
   1.1. Unpacking and Connecting the Commodore 64
   1.2. Installation
   1.3. Optional Connections
   1.4. Operation
   1.5. Color Adjustment

2. GETTING STARTED
   2.1. Keyboard
   2.2. Back to Normal
   2.3. Loading and Saving Programs
   2.4. PRINT and Calculations
   2.5. Precedence
   2.6. Combining Things

3. BEGINNING BASIC PROGRAMMING
   3.1. The Next Step
        GOTO
   3.2. Editing Tips
   3.3. Variables
   3.4. IF ... THEN
   3.5. FOR ... NEXT Loops

4. ADVANCED BASIC
   4.1. Introduction
   4.2. Simple Animation
        Nested Loops
   4.3. INPUT
   4.4. GET
   4.5. Random Numbers and Other Functions
   4.6. Guessing Game
   4.7. Your Roll
   4.8. Random Graphics
        CHR$ and ASC Functions

5. ADVANCED COLOR AND GRAPHIC COMMANDS
   5.1. Color and Graphics
   5.2. PRINTing Colors
   5.3. Color CHR$ Codes
   5.4. PEEKs and POKEs
   5.5. Screen Graphics
   5.6. Screen Memory Map
   5.7. Color Memory Map
   5.8. More Bouncing Balls

6. SPRITE GRAPHICS
   6.1. Introduction to Sprites
   6.2. Sprite Creation
   6.3. Additional Notes on Sprites
   6.4. Binary Arithmetic

7. CREATING SOUND
   7.1. Using Sound if You're Not a Computer Programmer
   7.2. Structure of a Sound Program
   7.3. Sample Sound Program
   7.4. Making Music on Your Commodore 64
   7.5. Important Sound Settings
   7.6. Playing a Song on the Commodore 64
   7.7. Creating Sound Effects
   7.8. Sample Sound Effects To Try

8. ADVANCED DATA HANDLING
   8.1. READ and DATA
   8.2. Averages
   8.3. Subscripted Variables
        One-Dimensional Arrays
        Averages Revisited
   8.4. DIMENSION
   8.5. Simulated Dice Roll With Arrays
   8.6. Two-Dimensional Arrays

APPENDICES
   Introduction
   A: COMMODORE 64 ACCESSORIES AND SOFTWARE
   B: ADVANCED CASSETTE OPERATION
   C: COMMODORE 64 BASIC
   D: ABBREVIATIONS FOR BASIC KEYWORDS
   E: SCREEN DISPLAY CODES
   F: ASCII AND CHR$ CODES
   G: SCREEN AND COLOR MEMORY MAP
   H: DERIVING MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS
   I: PINOUTS FOR INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES
   J: PROGRAMS TO TRY
   K: CONVERTING STANDARD BASIC PROGRAMS TO COMMODORE 64 BASIC
   L: ERROR MESSAGES
   M: MUSIC NOTE VALUES
   N: BIBLIOGRAPHY
   O: SPRITE REGISTER MAP
   P: COMMODORE 64 SOUND CONTROL SETTINGS

INDEX



INTRODUCTION

  Congratulations,  on  your purchase of one of the best computers in the
world.  You  are  now  the proud owner of the COMMODORE 64.  Commodore is
known  as  The  Friendly Computer company,  and part of being friendly is
giving  you easy to read,  easy to use and easy to understand instruction
manuals.  The  COMMODORE 64 USER'S GUIDE  is designed to give you all the
information  you  need to properly set up your equipment,  get acquainted
with  operating  the  COMMODORE 64,  and give you a simple,  fun start at
learning to make your own program.
  For  those  of  you  who  don't want to bother learning how to program,
we've put all the information you need to use Commodore programs or other
prepackaged programs and/or game cartridges  (third party software) right
up  front.  This means  you don't have to hunt through the entire book to
get started.
  Now  let's  look at some of the exciting features that are just waiting
for you inside your COMMODORE 64. First, when it comes to graphics you've
got  the  most  advanced  picture maker in the microcomputer industry. We
call it SPRITE GRAPHICS, and it allows you to design your own pictures in
4  different  colors,  just  like  the  ones you see on arcade type video
games.  Not only that,  the  SPRITE EDITOR let's you animate as many as 8
different  picture  levels  at  one time.  The SPRITE EDITOR will soon be
available  as  software  program  that  you  can  load directly into your
COMMODORE 64.  You  can  move your creations anywhere on the screen, even
pass  one  image  in  front of or behind another.  Your COMMODORE 64 even
provides  automatic  collision  detection which instructs the computer to
take the action you want when the sprites hit each other.
  Next,  the COMMODORE 64 has built-in music and sound effects that rival
many well known music synthesizers.  This part of your computer gives you
3  independent voices,  each with a full 9 octave "piano-type" range.  In
addition  you  get  4 different waveforms (sawtooth,  triangle,  variable
pulse, and noise),  a programmable ADSR (attack, decay, sustain, release)
envelope generator and a programmable high,  low, and bandpass filter for
the voices, and variable resonance and volume controls.  If you want your
music to play back with professional sound reproduction, the COMMODORE 64
allows  you  to  connect  your  audio  output  to almost any high-quality
amplification system.
  While  we're  on  the  subject  of connecting the COMMODORE 64 to other
pieces   of   equipment  ...  your  system  can  be  expanded  by  adding
accessories, known as peripherals, as your computing needs grow.  Some of
your  options  include  items like a DATASSETTE recorder or as many as 5,
VIC  1541  disk drive units for the programs you make and/or play. If you
already have a VIC 1540 disk drive your dealer can update it for use with
the  COMMODORE 64.  You  can  add  a  VIC  dot matrix printer to give you
printed copies of your programs, letters, invoices, etc... If you want to
connect  up  with larger computers and their massive data bases then just
plug  in  a  VICMODEM  cartridge,  and  get  the  services of hundreds of
specialists  and  a  variety of information networks through your home or
business telephone.  Finally  if you're one of those people interested in
the  wide  variety   of  applications  software  available  in  CP/M, the
COMMODORE 64 can be fitted with a plug-in Z-80 microprocessor.
  Just  as  important as all the available hardware is the fact that this
USER'S GUIDE  will  help  you develop your understanding of computers. It
won't  tell  you  everything  there  is  to know about computers,  but it
will  refer  you  to  a  wide  variety  of publications for more detailed
information  about  the  topics presented.  Commodore wants you to really
enjoy your new COMMODORE 64.  And to have fun,  remember:  programming is
not  the  kind of thing you can learn in a day.  Be patient with yourself
as  you  go  through the USER'S GUIDE.  But before you start,  take a few
minutes  to  fill  out  and mail in the owner/registration card that come
with  your  computer.  It  will ensure that your COMMODORE 64 is properly
registered  with  Commodore  Headquarters  and  that you receive the most
up-to-date  information  regarding  future enhancements for your machine.
Welcome to a whole new world of fun!

NOTE:
  Many  programs  are  under  development  while  this  manual  is  being
produced.  Please  check  with  your  local  Commodore  dealer  and  with
Commodore User's Magazines  and Clubs,  which will keep you up to date on
the  wealth  of applications programs being written for the Commodore 64,
worldwide.



1. SETUP


1.1. Unpacking and Connecting the Commodore 64

  The  following  step-by-step  instructions  show you how to connect the
Commodore 64  to your television set,  sound system,  or monitor and make
sure everything is working properly.
  Before  attaching  anything to the computer,  check the contents of the
Commodore  64  container.  Besides  this  manual,  you  should  find  the
following items:

  1. Commodore 64
  2. Power supply (black box with an AC plug and supply cord)
  3. Video cable
  4. TV Switchbox (small silver box with short antenna leads).

  If any items are missing  check back with your dealer immediately for a
replacement.
  First,  let's take a look at the arrangement of the various connections
on the computer and how each functions.


                                    /####\--------^--\
                               /####                 |
                          /####                      |
                 ____/####                           |
                /                                    |
               |               ----   ----  __  /-\  |
               |               \--/   \--/  ==  \_/  |
                \________________\___/______/____|__/
                                  \/       /     |
                                  3       2      1
                                 GAME   POWER  POWER
                                PORTS  SWITCH  SOCKET


     ___/###\__/##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##\__
    |-------------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                             |
    |                                                             |
    |                                                             |
    | +--------------+            /-\  /-\  +------+ +----------+ |
    | |==============|  [=]  O    \_/  \_/  |======| |==========| |
    +-----/-------------/----/-----\-----\--------\---------\-----+
       /              /     /       \      \        \         \
     4              5      6         7       8        9         10
   CARTRIDGE  CHANNEL     TV     AUDIO/VIDEO  SERIAL  CASSETTE  USER
     SLOT    SELECTOR  CONNECTOR  CONNECTOR    PORT  INTERFACE  PORT


SIDE PANEL CONNECTIONS

  1. POWER SOCKET.  The  free  end  of the cable from the power supply is
     attached here to supply power to the Commodore 64.
  2. POWER SWITCH. Turns on power to the Commodore 64.
  3. GAME PORTS.  Each  game  connector  can  accept  a  joystick or game
     controller  paddle,  while the lightpen can only be plugged into the
     game port closest to the front of your computer.

REAR CONNECTIONS

  4. CARTRIDGE SLOT.  The rectangular slot to the left accepts program or
     game cartridges.
  5. CHANNEL SELECTOR.  Use  this  switch  to select which TV channel the
     computer's picture will be displayed on.
  6. TV CONNECTOR.  This connector supplies both the picture and sound to
     your television set.
  7. AUDIO & VIDEO OUTPUT.  This  connector supplies direct audio,  which
     can  be connected to a high quality sound system,  and a "composite"
     video signal, which can be fed into a television "monitor".
  8. SERIAL PORT.  You can attach a printer or single disk drive directly
     to the Commodore 64 through this connector.
  9. CASSETTE INTERFACE.  A  DATASSETTE  recorder  can be attached to the
     computer  so  you  can  save  information entered for use at a later
     time.
 10. USER PORT.  Various interface cartridges can be attached to the user
     port, such as the VICMODEM, or RS 232 communication cartridge.


1.2. Installation


CONNECTIONS TO YOUR TV

Connect the computer to your TV as shown below.


                                      TV
                                   Switchbox   +--+-----------------+--+
                                    +-----+    |  | /-------------\#|  |
                /---------------#= =|     |=   |  | |             |#|  |
                |                   +--#--+    |  | |             |#|  |
                |                      \\_     |  | |             | |  |
                |                       \_     |  | |             | |  |
         To TV  |                  To 300 Ohm  |  | \-------------/ |  |
         Signal #                Antenna Input +==+=================+==+
          Jack  |
  /------------------------\
 |                          |=---\
 | ####################  ## |    |
 | ####################  ## |    |
 |  ##################   ## |    |
 |    ##############     ## |    |
  \________________________/     |
                                 |
                                 |
                                 |
                               +---+
                               |   | Power
                               |   | Supply
                               +---+
                                 |
                                 |


1. Attach one end of the TV cable to the phono type TV signal jack at the
   rear of the Commodore 64. Just push it in. Either end of the cable can
   be used.
2. Connect the other end of the cable to the antenna switchbox. Just push
   it in.
3. If you have a VHF antenna, disconnect it from your TV set.
4. Connect your VHF antenna cable to the screw terminals labeled "antenna
   input"  on  the  switchbox.  If your antenna cable is the round 75-ohm
   coax  type,  use  a 75-ohm to 300-ohm adapter (not supplied) to attach
   your antenna cable to the switchbox.
5. Connect the twin lead output cable of the antenna switchbox to the VHF
   antenna  terminals  of  your  TV set.  If your set is one of the newer
   types  with  a round 75-ohm VHF connector,  you will need a 300-ohm to
   75-ohm converter (not supplied) to connect the switchbox to the 75-ohm
   VHF antenna input on the set.
6. Set  the  TV's  VHF  tuner  to  the  channel  number  indicated on the
   computer's  channel selector switch (channel 3  move the switch to the
   left,  channel 4  move the switch to the right).  If a strong local TV
   signal  is present on one of these channels,  select the other channel
   to avoid possible interference.
7. Plug  the  power supply cable into the power socket on the side of the
   Commodore 64.  Just  push  it in.  It is "keyed" to allow insertion in
   only one direction, so you can't connect the power cord the wrong way.
   The power supply converts household current into the form the computer
   uses.


                            /+---------------+
                           + |               |
                           | |       |       |
                           | |       |       |
                     /     | |       |       |
                    |========|       |       |
                    |========|       |       |
                   /       | |       |       |
                           | |               |
                           | |    _     _    /
                           | |   |O|   |O|  |
                           + |    #     #   |
                            \+-----\---/----+
                                    \ /
                                    | |
                                    | |
                                    | |
                                   ++-++
                   75 Ohm to       |___|
                    300 Ohm  ----> |   |
                    Adapter        |   |
                                   +---+
                                    \=/
                                    ###
                 Your 75 Ohm ---->  | |
              Coax VHF Antenna      | |



                       /-----------    -----------\
                      |  /==\      /==\      /==\  |
                      | ||__||    ||__||    ||__|| |
                      |  \__/      \__/      \__/  |
                       \__________________________/
                                               ^    To VHF
                                              _|___  ANT.
                                             +---+/
                                300 Ohm      |   ||
                               to 75 Ohm --> |   ||
                                Adapter      ++-++/
                                              | |
                                              | |
                                              |_|/
                                             /


  The Commodore 64 is now correctly connected.  No additional connections
are required to use the computer with your TV. The antenna switchbox will
connect the computer to the TV when the slide switch is in the "computer"
position.  When  the switch is in the "TV" position your set will operate
normally.


     ___/###\__/##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##_##\__
    |-------------------------------------------------------------|
    |                                                             |
    |                                                             |
    |                                                             |
    | +--------------+            /-\  /-\  +------+ +----------+ |
    | |==============|  [=]  O    \_/  \_/  |======| |==========| |
    +-------------------------------------------------------------+
                             ^
                   To        |
                TV Signal    |
                  Jack
                             |                  Back of Your TV
                             #         _/-----------------------------
                            | |       /
                            \ /      +--------------------------------
                             |          |
                             \__________I______________________
                                        |                      \
                                        |-------+               |
                                        |  UHF  |               |
                                        | O   O |              |#|
                                        |  VHF  |               |
                                        ||O| |O||     /---------=-\
                                       /| #   # |    |  COMPUTER   |
                                     /  |-|---|-+    |      |      |
                               200 Ohm  | |   |      |      |      |
                                 VHF    | |    \_____|      |      |
                                Input   |  \_________|      |      |
                                        |            |      |      |
                                        |            |     TV      |
                                        |  Antenna ->|   |O| |O|   |
                                        |  Switch     \___#___#___/
                                        |    Box          |   | __
                                        |                 |___|/
                                                        __/
                                                        Your VHF
                                                         Antenna
                                                        (If Used)


1.3. Optional Connections

  Since the Commodore 64 furnishes a channel of high fidelity sound,  you
may wish to play it through a quality amplifier to realize the best sound
possible.   In addition,  the  Commodore  64  also  provides  a  standard
"composite" video signal, which can be fed into a television monitor.
  These  options  are made possible by the audio/video output jack on the
rear panel  of the Commodore 64.  The easiest way to gain access to these
signals is by using a standard 5-Pin DIN audio cable (not supplied). This
cable connects directly to the audio/video connector on the computer. Two
of  the  four pins on the opposite end of the cable contain the audio and
video signals.  Optionally,  you can construct your own cable,  using the
pinouts shown in Appendix I as a guide.
  Normally,  the  BLACK  connector  of  the  DIN cable supplies the AUDIO
signal.  This  plug  may  be  connected  to  the  AUXILIARY  input  of an
amplifier,  or the AUDIO IN connector of a monitor or other video system,
such as a video cassette recorder (VCR).
  The  WHITE  or  RED connector usually supplies the direct VIDEO signal.
This  plug is connected to the VIDEO IN connector of the monitor or video
input section of some other video system, such as a VCR.
  Depending  on  the manufacturer of your DIN cable,  the color coding of
the plugs may be different.  Use the pinouts shown in Appendix I to match
up the proper plugs  if you don't get an audio or video signal  using the
suggested connections.



                   __###__################################__
                  /                                         \
                  |               Audio/Video               |
                  |                 Output                  |
                  |-----------------_---_-------------------|
                  | =========  = o | | | |  ===== ========= |
                  +-----------------------------------------+

                                    ^
                                    |

                                   /-\
                                   | |
                                   | |
                                    #
                                    |
                                    |
                       To AUXILIARY |
                         INPUT or   |
         ____________  TUNER INPUT  |
        /            \             / \  To VIDEO IN
  +----++------------++----+  <-#-/   \-#->  +------------+---+
  |    || ### ====== ||    |                 | /--------\ | O |
  |    || ===  OoooO ||    |                 ||          || = |
  |    ||------------||    |                 ||          || o |
  |    ||  |   |   | ||    |                 | \________/ |   |
  |    ||  |   |   | ||    |                 +------------+---+
  +----++============++----+
                                                 TV Monitor
         Audio System


  If you purchased peripheral equipment, such as a VIC 1541 disk drive or
a VIC 1525E printer,  you may wish to connect it at this time.  Refer  to
the  user's  manuals  supplied  with  any  additional  equipment  for the
procedure for connecting it to the computer.

  A completed system might look like this.

[ Picture omitted ]


1.4. Operation

USING THE COMMODORE 64

1. Turn  on  the computer using the rocker switch on the right-side panel
   when you're looking at the computer from the front.
2. After a few moments the following will be displayed on the TV screen:

      **** COMMODORE 64 BASIC V2 ****
   64K RAM SYSTEM  38911 BASIC BYTES FREE

   READY.
   _  <----------- Cursor signals Commodore 64 is waiting for your input

3. If your TV has a manual fine tuning knob,  adjust the TV until you get
   a clear picture.
4. You  may also want to adjust the color and tint controls on the TV for
   the best display. You can use the color adjustment procedure described
   later to get everything setup properly.  When you first get a picture,
   the  screen  should appear mostly dark blue,  with a light blue border
   and letters.

  If  you  don't  get  the  expected  results,  recheck  the  cables  and
connections. The accompanying chart will help you isolate any problem.


TROUBLESHOOTING CHART

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Symptom               Cause                 Remedy                    |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
| Indicator Light      Computer not "On"     Make sure power switch     |
| not "On"                                   is in "On" position        |
|                                                                       |
|                      Power cable not       Check power socket for     |
|                      not plugged in        loose or disconnected      |
|                                            power cable                |
|                                                                       |
|                      Power supply not      Check connection with      |
|                      plugged in            wall outlet                |
|                                                                       |
|                      Bad fuse in           Take system to authorized  |
|                      computer              dealer for replacement of  |
|                                            fuse                       |
|                                                                       |
|                      TV on wrong           Check other channel        |
|                      channel               for picture (3 or 4)       |
|                                                                       |
|                      Incorrect             Computer hooks up to       |
|                      hookup                VHF antenna terminals      |
|                                                                       |
|                      Video cable not       Check TV output cable      |
|                      plugged in            connection                 |
|                                                                       |
|                      Computer set for      Set computer for same      |
|                      wrong channel         channel as TV (3 or 4)     |
|                                                                       |
| Random patterns on   Cartridge not         Reinsert cartridge after   |
| TV with cartridge    properly inserted     turning off power          |
| in place                                                              |
|                                                                       |
| Picture without      Poorly tuned TV       Retune TV                  |
| color                                                                 |
|                                                                       |
| Picture with         Bad color             Adjust color/hue/          |
| poor color           adjustment on TV      brightness controls on TV  |
|                                                                       |
| Sound with excess    TV volume up high     Adjust volume of TV        |
| background noise                                                      |
|                                                                       |
| Picture OK,          TV volume too low     Adjust volume of TV        |
| but no sound                                                          |
|                                                                       |
|                      Aux. output not       Connect sound jack to      |
|                      properly connected    aux. input on amplifier    |
|                                            and select aux. input      |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

TIP:  The  COMMODORE 64  was designed  to be used by everyone.  But we at
Commodore  recognize  that  computer  users may,  occasionally,  run into
difficulties.  To  help  answer  your  questions  and  give  you some fun
programming  ideas,  Commodore  has  created several publications to help
you.  You might also find that it's a good idea to join a Commodore Users
Club  to  help  you  meet some other COMMODORE 64 owners who can help you
gain knowledge and experience.

CURSOR

  The  flashing  square  under  READY  is called the cursor and indicates
where what you type on the keyboard  will be displayed on the screen.  As
you  type,  the cursor will move ahead one space,  as the original cursor
position  is  replaced  with  the character you typed.  Try typing on the
keyboard and watch as characters you type are displayed on the TV screen.


1.5. Color Adjustment

  There  is  a simple way to get a pattern of colors on the TV so you can
easily  adjust  the  set.  Even  though  you may not be familiar with the
operation  of the computer right now,  just follow along,  and you'll see
how easy it is to use the Commodore 64.
  First,  look on the left side of the keyboard and locate the key marked
<CTRL>.  This  stands for ConTRoL and is used,  in conjunction with other
keys, to instruct the computer to do a specific task.

[ Picture omitted ]

  To  use  a  control  function,  you  hold  down  the  <CTRL>  key while
depressing a second key.
  Try this:  hold the <CTRL> key  while also depressing the <9> key. Then
release both keys. Nothing obvious should have happened, but if you touch
any  key  now,  the  screen  will show the character displayed in reverse
type, rather than normal type -- like the opening message or anything you
typed earlier.
  Hold down the <SPACE BAR>. What happens? If you did the above procedure
correctly,  you  should  see  a light blue bar move across the screen and
then move down to the next line as long as the <SPACE BAR> is depressed.

     **** COMMODORE 64 BASIC V2 ****
  64K RAM SYSTEM  38911 BASIC BYTES FREE

  READY.
  ____________________________
  __________

  Now,  hold <CTRL>  while depressing any of the other number keys.  Each
of  them  has a color  marked on the front.  Anything displayed from this
point will be in that color. For example, hold <CTRL> and the <8> key and
release both. Now hold the <SPACE BAR>.
  Watch the display.  The bar is now in yellow!  In a like manner you can
change  the  bar  to  any  of  the colors indicated on the number keys by
holding <CTRL> and the appropriate key.
  Change the bar to a few more different colors and then adjust the color
and  tint  controls  on  your  TV  so  the display matches the colors you
selected.
  The display should appear something like this:

     **** COMMODORE 64 BASIC V2 ****
  64K RAM SYSTEM  38911 BASIC BYTES FREE

  READY.
  _________________________     <------ <3> Red bar
  _______ ____________ ____     <------ <3>,<6>,<7> Red, Green, Blue bars
  __________ ______________     <------ <7>,<8> Blue, Yellow bars
  ____________                  <------ <8> Yellow bar

  At  this  point  everything is properly adjusted and working correctly.
The following chapters will introduce you to the BASIC language. However,
you can  immediately start using some of the many prewritten applications
and  games available for the Commodore 64  without knowing anything about
computer programming.
  Each  of  these packages contains detailed information about how to use
the  program.  It is suggested,  though,  that you read through the first
few  chapters  of  this  manual  to  become  more familiar with the basic
operation of your new system.



2. GETTING STARTED


2.1. Keyboard

  Now that you've got everything set up and adjusted,  please  take a few
moments  to  familiarize  yourself  with  the keyboard which is your most
important means of communication with the Commodore 64.
  You  will  find  the keyboard similar to a standard typewriter keyboard
found  in  most  areas.  There  are,  however, a number of new keys which
control specialized functions. What follows is a brief description of the
various  keys  and how they function.  The detailed operation of each key
will be covered in later sections.

[ Picture omitted ]


<RETURN>

  The <RETURN> key signals the computer  to look at the information  that
you typed and enters that information into memory.


<SHIFT>

  The <SHIFT> key works like that on a standard typewriter. Many keys are
capable of displaying two letters or symbols  and two graphic characters.
In  the  "upper/lower case" mode the <SHIFT> key gives you standard upper
case  characters.  In the "upper case/graphic" mode  the <SHIFT> key will
display the graphic character on the right hand side of the front part of
the key.
  In the case of special YELLOW function keys,  the <SHIFT> key will give
you the function marked on the front of the key.


EDITING

  No  one  is  perfect,  and  the Commodore 64 takes that into account. A
number  of  editing  keys  let  you  correct  typing  mistakes  and  move
information around on the screen.


<CRSR>

  There are two keys marked <CRSR> (CuRSoR), one with up and down arrows,
the other with left and right arrows.  You can use these keys to move the
cursor up and down or left and right.  In the unshifted mode,  the <CRSR>
keys  will  let  you  move  the  cursor down and to the right.  Using the
<SHIFT> key and <CRSR> keys allows the cursor to be moved either up or to
the  left.  The  cursor keys have a special repeat feature that keeps the
cursor moving until you release the key.


<INST/DEL>

  If  you  hit  the  <INST/DEL>  key,  the cursor will move back a space,
erasing  (DELeting)  the  previous  character you typed. If you're in the
middle of a line, the character to the left is deleted and the characters
to the right automatically move together to close up the space.
  A <SHIFT>ed <INST/DEL> allows you to INSerT information on a line.  For
example,  if you noticed a typing mistake  in the beginning of a line  --
perhaps you left out part of the name  -- you could use the <CRSR> key to
move back to the error  and then hit <INST/DEL>  to insert a space.  Then
just type in the missing later.


<CLR/HOME>

  <CLR/HOME>  positions  the cursor at the "HOME" position of the screen,
which is the upper left-hand corner.  A shifted <CLR/HOME> will clear the
screen and place the cursor in the home position.


<RESTORE>

  <RESTORE>  operates as the name implies.  It stores the computer to the
normal  state  it was in before you changed things with a program or some
command. A lot more will be said on this in later chapters.


FUNCTION KEYS

  The  four  function  keys  on  the  right  side  of the keyboard can be
"programmed"  to  handle  a variety of functions.  They can be defined in
many ways to handle repetitive tasks.

[ Picture omitted ]


<CTRL>

  The  <CTRL>  key,  which  stands for ConTRoL, allows you to set colors,
and  perform  other  specialized  functions. You hold the <CTRL> key down
while  depressing  another  designated key to get a control function. You
had an opportunity to try the <CTRL> key  when you changed text colors to
create different color bars during the setup procedure.


<RUN/STOP>

  Normally,  depressing the <RUN/STOP>  key  will stop the execution of a
BASIC program. It signals the computer to STOP doing something. Using the
<RUN/STOP> key in the shifted mode will allow you to automatically load a
program from tape.


<C=> COMMODORE KEY

  The Commodore key <C=> performs a number of functions. First, it allows
you to move between the text and graphic display modes.
  When  the computer is first turned on,  it is in the upper case/graphic
mode,  that  is,  everything  you  type is in upper case letters.  As was
mentioned, using the <SHIFT> key in this mode will display the graphic on
the right side of the keys.
  If you hold down the <C=> key and <SHIFT> key,  the display will change
to upper and lower case. Now, if you hold down the <C=> key and any other
key with a graphic symbol,  the graphic shown on the left side of the key
will be displayed.
  To get back into the upper case/graphic mode hold down the <C=> key and
<SHIFT> key again.
  The second function of the <C=> key is to  allow you access to a second
set  of  eight  text colors.  By holding down the <C=> key and any of the
number keys,  any text now typed will be in the alternate color available
from  the  key  you depressed.  Chapter 5 lists the text colors available
from each key.


2.2. Back to Normal

  Now  that you've had a chance to look over the keyboard,  let's explore
some of the Commodore 64's many capabilities.
  If  you  still have the color bars on the screen from adjusting your TV
set, hold <SHIFT> and <CLR/HOME>.  The screen should clear and the cursor
will  be  positioned  in  the  "home" spot (upper left-hand corner of the
screen).
  Now, simultaneously hold <C=> and the <7> key. This sets the text color
back to light blue.  There is one more step needed to get everything back
to normal. Hold <CTRL> and <0> (Zero not Oh!). This sets the display mode
back  to  normal.  If  you  remember,  we turned REVERSE type on with the
<CTRL><9> to create the color bars (the color bars were actually reversed
spaces).  If  we were in the normal text mode during the color test,  the
cursor would have moved, but just left blank spaces.


TIP:

  Now  that  you've  done  things  the hard way, there is a simple way to
reset the machine  to the normal display.  First press the <RUN/STOP> key
and then press the <RESTORE> key.  <RUN/STOP> must always be held down in
order to use the <RESTORE> key function.
  This will clear the screen and return everything to normal. If there is
a  program  in  the computer,  it will be left untouched.  This is a good
sequence to remember, especially if you do a lot of programming.
  If  you  wish  to  reset  the machine as if it were turned off and then
switched on again, type,  SYS 64759  and press <RETURN>. Be careful using
this  command!  It  will  wipe  out  any  program  or information that is
currently in the computer.


2.3. Loading and Saving Programs

  One  of  the most important features of the Commodore 64 is the ability
to save and load programs to and from cassette tape or disk.
  This  capability allows you to save the programs you write for use at a
later time, or purchase prewritten programs to use with the Commodore 64.
  Make  sure  that  either  the  disk  drive or cassette unit is attached
properly.


LOADING PREPACKAGED PROGRAMS

  For  those  of  you  interested  in  using  only  prepackaged  programs
available on cartridges, cassette, or disk here's all you have to do:

1. CARTRIDGES: The Commodore 64 computer has a line of programs and games
on cartridge.  The programs offer a wide variety of business and personal
applications  and  the  games  are  just  like real arcade games  --  not
imitations. To load these games, first turn on your TV set. Next turn OFF
your  Commodore 64.  YOU MUST TURN OFF YOUR COMMODORE 64 BEFORE INSERTING
OR  REMOVING  CARTRIDGES  OR  YOU  MAY  DAMAGE  THE CARTRIDGE AND/OR YOUR
COMMODORE 64! Third insert the cartridge.  Now turn your Commodore 64 on.
Finally  type  the  appropriate START key as is listed on the instruction
sheet that comes with each game.

2. CASSETTES:  Use  your  DATASSETTE  recorder  and  the  ordinary  audio
cassettes  that  came as part of your prepackaged program.  Make sure the
tape is completely rewound to the beginning of the first side.  Then just
type  LOAD.  The  computer  will  answer with PRESS PLAY ON TAPE,  so you
respond  by  pressing play on your datassette machine.  At this point the
computer  screen  will go blank until the program is found.  The computer
will say  FOUND (PROGRAM NAME)  on the screen.  Now you press down on the
<C=> key.  This will actually load the program into the computer.  If you
want to stop the loading simply press <RUN/STOP> key.

3. DISK:  Using your disk drive,  carefully insert the preprogrammed disk
so  that  the label on the disk is facing up and is closest to you.  Look
for  a  little notch on the disk (it might be covered with a little piece
of tape). If  you're inserting the disk properly the notch will be on the
left side.  Once the disk is inside  close the protective gate by pushing
down on the lever.  Now type  LOAD "PROGRAM NAME",8  and hit the <RETURN>
key. The disk will make noise and your screen will say:

  SEARCHING FOR PROGRAM NAME
  LOADING
  READY.
  _

  When  the  READY  comes  on  and  the  _ is on, just type RUN, and your
prepackaged software is ready to use.


LOADING PROGRAMS FROM TAPE

  Loading  a program back from tape or disk is just as simple.  For tape,
rewind the tape back to the beginning and type:

  LOAD "PROGRAM NAME"

  If  you  don't remember the program name,  just type LOAD and the first
program on the tape will be loaded into memory.
  After you press <RETURN> the computer will respond with:

  PRESS PLAY ON TAPE

  After  you  depress  the  play  key, the screen will blank, turning the
border color of the screen as the computer searches for the program.
  When the program is found, the screen will display:

  FOUND PROGRAM NAME

  To  actually  load  the  program,  depress the <C=> key. To abandon the
loading  procedure,  hit  <RUN/STOP>.  If  you hit the Commodore key, the
screen  will  again  turn  the  border color while the program is loaded.
After  the  loading procedure is completed, the screen will return to the
normal state and the READY prompt will reappear.


LOADING PROGRAMS FROM DISK

  Loading a program from disk follows the same format. Type:

  LOAD "PROGRAM NAME",8

  The  8  is  the  code for the disk, so you're just letting the computer
know that you want the program loaded from the disk.
  After  you  hit  <RETURN>  the disk will start whirring and the display
shows:

  SEARCHING FOR PROGRAM NAME
  LOADING
  READY.
  _

NOTE:
  When   you   load  a  new  program  into  the  computer's  memory,  any
instructions  that  were  in the computer previously will be erased. Make
sure  you  save  a  program  you're  working on before loading a new one.
Once a program has been loaded, you can RUN it, LIST, or make changes and
re-save the new version.


SAVING PROGRAMS ON TAPE

  After entering a program, if you wish to save it on tape, type:

  SAVE "PROGRAM NAME"

  "PROGRAM NAME" can be up to 16 characters long.  After you hit <RETURN>
the computer will respond with:

  PRESS PLAY AND RECORD ON TAPE

  Press both the record and play keys on the datassette.  The screen will
blank, turning the color of the border.
  After  the  program  is  saved on tape, the READY prompt will reappear,
indicating  that  you can start working on another program,  or just turn
off the computer for a while.


SAVING PROGRAMS ON DISK

  Saving a program on disk is even simpler. Type:

  SAVE "PROGRAM NAME",8

  The  8  is  the code for the disk,  so you're just letting the computer
know you want the program saved to disk.
  After you press  <RETURN>  the disk will start to turn and the computer
will respond with:

  SAVING PROGRAM NAME
  OK
  READY.
  _


2.4. PRINT and Calculations

  Now  that  you've  gotten  through  a  couple  of  the  more  difficult
operations  you need  in order to keep the programs you like,  lets start
making some programs for you to save.
  Try typing the following exactly as shown:

  PRINT "COMMODORE 64"     <----- Type this line and hit <RETURN>
  COMMODORE 64            <------ Computer typed

  READY.
  _

  If  you  make  a  typing  mistake,  use the <INST/DEL> key to erase the
character  immediately  to the left of the cursor. You can delete as many
characters as necessary.
  Let's  see  what  went on in the example above.  First,  you instructed
(commanded) the computer to PRINT whatever was inside the quote marks. By
hitting  <RETURN>  you  told  the computer to do  what you instructed and
COMMODORE 64 was printed on the screen.
  When you use the PRINT statement in this form,  whatever is enclosed in
quotes is printed exactly as you typed it.
  If the computer responded with:

  ?SYNTAX ERROR

ask yourself if you made a mistake in typing,  or forgot the quote marks.
The  computer  is  precise  and  expects  instructions  to  be given in a
specific form.
  But don't get worried; just remember to enter things as we present them
in the examples and you'll get along great with the Commodore 64.
  Remember, you can't hurt the computer by typing on it, and the best way
to learn BASIC is to try different things and see what happens.
  PRINT  is  one  of  the  most useful and powerful commands in the BASIC
language.  With  it,  you  can  display  just  about  anything  you wish,
including graphics and results of computations.
  For example,  try the following.  Clear the screen  by holding down the
<SHIFT> key  and  <CLR/HOME> key and type (be sure to use the '1' key for
one, not a letter 'I'):

  PRINT 12 + 12            <----- Type this line and hit <RETURN>
  24                      <------ Computer printed the answer

  READY.
  _

  What you've discovered is  that the Commodore 64 is a calculator in its
basic form.  The result of "24" was calculated and printed automatically.
In  fact,  you can also perform  subtraction,  multiplication,  division,
exponentiation, and  advanced  math  functions such as calculating square
roots, etc. And you're not limited to a single calculation on a line, but
more on that later.
  Note  that in the above form,  PRINT behaved differently from the first
example.  In  this  case,  a value or result of a calculation is printed,
rather  than  the  exact message you entered because the quote marks were
omitted.


ADDITION

  The plus sign (+) signals addition: we instructed the computer to print
the result of 12 added to 12.  Other arithmetic operations take a similar
form to addition.  Remember to always hit <RETURN> after typing PRINT and
the calculation.


SUBTRACTION

  To subtract, use the conventional minus (-) sign. Type:

  PRINT 12 - 9             <----- Hit <RETURN>
  3


MULTIPLICATION

  If  you  wanted  to  multiply  12  times  12,  use  the asterisk (*) to
represent multiplication. You would type:

  PRINT 12 * 12            <----- Hit <RETURN>
  144


DIVISION

  Division uses the familiar "/". For example, to divide 144 by 12, type:

  PRINT 144 / 12           <----- Hit <RETURN>
  12


EXPONENTIATION

  In  a  like fashion,  you can easily raise a number to a power (this is
the same as multiplying a number by itself  a specified number of times).
The '^' (up arrow) signifies exponentiation.

  PRINT 12 ^ 5
  248832

  This is the same as typing:

  PRINT 12 * 12 * 12 * 12 * 12
  248832

TIP:
  BASIC  has  number  of  shortcut ways of doing things.  One such way is
abbreviating BASIC commands (or keywords).  A '?' can be used in place of
PRINT,  for example.  As we go on you'll be presented with many commands;
Appendix D shows the abbreviations for each and what will be displayed on
the screen when you type the abbreviated form.

  The  last example brings up another important point:  many calculations
may be performed on the same line, and they can be of mixed types.
  You could calculate this problem:

  ? 3 + 5 - 7 + 2          (The '?' replaces the word PRINT)
  3

  Up  to  this  point  we've just used small numbers and simple examples.
However, the Commodore 64 is capable of more complex calculations.
  You could,  for example,  add a number of large figures together.  Try
this, but don't use any commas, or you'll get an error:

  ? 123.45 + 345.78 + 7895.687
  8364.917

  That looks fine, but now try this:

  ? 12123123.45 + 345.78 + 7895.687
  12131364.9

  If you took the time to add this up by hand,  you would get a different
result.
  What's  going  on  here?  Even  though the computer has a lot of power,
there's  a limit to the numbers it can handle.  The Commodore 64 can work
with numbers containing 10 digits. However when a number is printed, only
nine digits are displayed.
  So in our example, the result was "rounded" to fit in the proper range.
The Commodore 64 rounds up when the next digit is five or more; it rounds
down when the next digit is four or less.
  Numbers  between  0.01  and  999,999,999  are  printed  using  standard
notation.  Numbers  outside  this  range  are  printed  using  scientific
notation.
  Scientific  notation  is  just  a process of expressing a very large or
small number as a power of 10.
  If you type:

  ? 123000000000000000
  1.23E+17

  This is the same as 1.23 * 10^17 and is used just to keep things tidy.
  There  is  a  limit  to  the  numbers  the computer can handle, even in
scientific notation. The limits are:

  Largest: +/- 1.70141183E+38
  Smallest (different from zero): +/- 2.93873588-39


2.5. Precedence

  If  you  tried  to  perform  some mixed calculations different from the
examples  we  showed  earlier, you might not have gotten the results that
you expected.  The reason is that the computer performs calculations in a
certain order.
  In this calculation:

                               20 + 8 / 2

you  can't  tell  whether the answer should be 24 or 14 until you know in
which order to perform the calculations.  If you add 20 to 8 divided by 2
(or 4), then the result is 24. But,  if you add 20 plus 8 and then divide
by 2 the answer is 14. Try the example and see what result you get.
  The reason you got 24 is because the Commodore 64 performs calculations
left to right according to the following:

First :   -   minus sign indicating negative numbers
Second:   ^   exponentiation, left to right
Third :   */  multiplication and divisions, left to right
Fourth:   +-  addition and subtraction, left to right

  Follow  along  according  to  the order of precedence, and you will see
that  it  the above example the division was performed first and then the
addition to get a result of 24.
  Make  up  some problems of your own and see if you can follow along and
predict the results according to the rules set down above.
  There's  also  an  easy  way  to  alter the precedence process by using
parentheses to set off which operations you want performed first.
  For example, if you want to divide 35 by 5-plus-2 you type:

  ? 35 / 5 + 2
  9

you  will  get  35  divided by 5 with 2 added to the answer, which is not
what you intended at all. To get what you really wanted, try this:

  ? 35 / (5 + 2)
  5

  What  happens  now  is  that  the  computer evaluates what is contained
in  the  parentheses first.  If there are parentheses within parentheses,
the innermost parentheses are evaluated first.
  Where there are a number of parentheses on a line, such as:

  ? (12 + 9) * (6 + 1)
  147

the computer evaluates them left to right. Here 21 would be multiplied by
7 for the result 147.


2.6. Combining Things

  Even though we've spent a lot of time in areas that might not seem very
important, the details presented here will make more sense once you start
to program, and will prove invaluable.
  To  give  you an idea how things fit in place,  consider the following:
how could you combine the two types of PRINT statements we've examined so
far to print something more meaningful on the screen?
  We  know  that  by  enclosing  something within quote marks prints that
information  on  the screen exactly as it was entered,  and by using math
operators,  calculations  can  be  performed.  So why not combine the two
types of PRINT statements like this:

  ? "5 * 9 = "; 5 * 9      (Semicolon means no space)
  5 * 9 = 45

  Even though this might seem a bit redundant,  what we've done is simply
use  both  types  of  print  statements  together.  The first part prints
"5 * 9 ="  exactly as it was typed.  The second part does the actual work
and prints the result,  with the semicolon separating the message part of
the statement from the actual calculation.
  You  can separate the parts of a mixed PRINT statement with punctuation
for  various formats.  Try a comma in place of the semicolon and see what
happens.
  For the curious, the semicolon causes the next part of the statement to
be printed immediately after the previous part,  without any spaces.  The
comma   does  something  different.  Even  though  it  is  an  acceptable
separator, it spaces things out more. If you type:

  ? 2,3,4,5,6   <-------------------------------- Hit <RETURN>
  2            3            4             5
  6

the  numbers  will  be  printed across the screen and down on to the next
line.
  The  Commodore  64's  display  is  organized into 4 areas of 10 columns
each.  The  comma tabs each result into the next available area. Since we
asked  for  more  information  to  be printed than would fit on one line,
(we  tried  to  fit  five  10-column areas on one line) the last item was
moved down to the next line.
  The  basic  difference  between  the  comma and semicolon in formatting
PRINT  statements  can  be  used our advantage when creating more complex
displays: it allow us to create some sophisticated results very easily.



3. BEGINNING BASIC PROGRAMMING


3.1. The Next Step

  Up  to  now  we've  performed  some  simple  operations  by  entering a
single  line  of  instructions  into  the  computer.  Once  <RETURN>  was
depressed,  the  operation  that  we specified was performed immediately.
This is called the IMMEDIATE or CALCULATOR mode.
  But  to  accomplish  anything  significant, we must be able to have the
computer  operate  with  more  than  a single line statement. A number of
statements  combined  together  is called a PROGRAM and allows you to use
the full power of the Commodore 64.
  To  see  how  easy  it is to write your first Commodore 64 program, try
this:

Clear the screen by holding down the <SHIFT> key, and then depressing the
<CLR/HOME> key.
Type NEW and press <RETURN>. (This just clears out any numbers that might
have been left in the computer from your experimenting.)
Now type the following exactly as shown  (remember to hit <RETURN>  after
each line)

  10 ? "COMMODORE 64"
  20 GOTO 10

  Now, type RUN and hit <RETURN> -- watch what happens.  Your screen will
come alive with COMMODORE 64. After you've finished watching the display,
hit <RUN/STOP> to stop the program.

  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  BREAK IN 10
  READY

  A number of important concepts were introduced in  this  short  program
that are the basis for all programming.
  Notice  that here we preceded each statement with a number.  This  LINE
number tells the computer in what order  to  work  with  each  statement.
These  numbers  are also a reference point,  in case the program needs to
get  back  to  a  particular  line.  Line numbers can be any whole number
(integer) value between 0-63999.

  10 PRINT "COMMODORE 64"
  ^    ^
  |    |-- Statement
  |
  +------- Line number

  It is good programming practice to number lines in increments of 10  --
in case you need to insert some statements later on.
  Besides PRINT, our program also used another BASIC command, GOTO.  This
instructs the computer to go directly to a particular  line  and  perform
it, then continue from that point.

  +--> 10 PRINT "COMMODORE 64"
  |
  +--- 20 GOTO 10

  In our example,  the program prints the message in line 10, goes to the
next  line  (20),  which instructs it to go back to line 10 and print the
message over again.  Then the cycle repeats.  Since we  didn't  give  the
computer a way out of this loop, the program will cycle endlessly,  until
we physically stop it with the <RUN/STOP> key.
  Once  you've stopped the program,  type: LIST.  Your  program  will  be
displayed, intact,  because it's still in the computer's memory.  Notice,
too, that the computer converted the '?' into PRINT for you.  The program
can now be changed, saved, or run again.
  Another  important difference between typing something in the immediate
mode  and writing a program is that once you execute and clear the screen
of  an  immediate  statement,  it's lost.  However,  you can always get a
program back by just typing LIST.
  By  the  way,  when  it  comes  to  abbreviations don't forget that the
computer may run out of space on a line if you use too many.


3.2. Editing Tips

  If you make a mistake on a line, you have a number of editing options.

1. You can retype a line anytime,  and the  computer  will  automatically
   substitute the new line for the old one.
2. An unwanted line can be erased by simply typing the  line  number  and
   <RETURN>.
3. You can also easily edit an existing line,  using the cursor keys  and
   editing keys.

   Suppose you made a typing mistake in a line of the example. To correct
it without retyping the entire line, try this:
  Type LIST, then using the <SHIFT> and <CRSR UP/DOWN> keys together move
the  cursor  up  until  it  is  positioned  on  the line that needs to be
changed.
  Now,  use  the  cursor-right  key  to  move the cursor to the character
you  want  to  change,  typing the change over the old character. Now hit
<RETURN> and the corrected line will replace the old one.
  If you need more space on the line, position the cursor where the space
is needed and hit  <SHIFT>  and  <INST/DEL>  at the same time and a space
will  open  up.  Now  just  type  in  the  additional information and hit
<RETURN>.  Likewise,  you  can  delete unwanted characters by placing the
cursor to the right of the unwanted character and hitting the  <INST/DEL>
key.
  To verify that changes were entered, type LIST again, and the corrected
program  will  be  displayed!  And  lines  don't  have  to  be entered in
numerical order. The computer will automatically place them in the proper
sequence.
  Try editing our sample program on  Section 3.1  by changing line 10 and
adding a comma to the end of the line. Then RUN the program again.

  10 PRINT "COMMODORE",

Don't forget to move the cursor past line 20 before you RUN the program.

  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE   COMMODORE
  BREAK IN 10
  READY


3.3. Variables

  Variables  are  some  of  the  most  used  features  of any programming
language,  because  variables  can represent much more information in the
computer.  Understanding how variables operate will make computing easier
and allow us to accomplish feats that would not be possible otherwise.
  Imagine a number of boxes within the computer that can hold a number or
a string of text characters.  Each of these boxes is to be labeled with a
name  that  we choose.  That name is called a variable and represents the
information in the respective box.
  For example, if we say:

  10 X% = 15
  20 X = 23.5
  30 X$ = "THE SUM OF X% + X ="

  The computer might represent the variables like this:

  X%  15

  X   23.5

  X$  THE SUM OF X% + X =

  A  variable  name  represents  the  box,  or memory location, where the
current  value  of  the variable is stored. As you can see, we can assign
either  an  integer  number, floating point number, or a text string to a
variable.
  The '%' symbol  following  a  variable name indicates the variable will
represent  an  integer  number.  The following are valid integer variable
names:

  A%
  X%
  A1%
  NM%

  The  '$'  following  the  variable  name  indicates  the  variable will
represent a text string. The following are examples of string variables:

  A$
  X$
  MI$

  Floating  point  variables  follow  the  same  format,  with  the  type
indicator:

  A1
  X
  Y
  MI

  In  assigning  a  name  to a variable there are a few things to keep in
mind.  First,  a  variable name can have one or two characters. The first
character  must  be  an  alphabetic  character  from  A to Z;  the second
character  can  be either alphabetic or numeric (in the range 0 to 9).  A
third character can be included to indicate the type of variable (integer
or text string), '%' or '$'.
  You can use variable names  having more than two alphabetic characters,
but  only the first two are recognized by the computer.  So PA and PARTNO
are the same and would refer to the same variable box.
  The  last  rule  for  variable names is simple:  they can't contain any
BASIC keywords  (reserved  words)  such as GOTO, RUN, etc.  Refer back to
Appendix D for a complete list of BASIC reserved words.
  To see how variables can be put to work,  type in  the complete program
that we introduced earlier and  RUN it.  Remember to hit  <RETURN>  after
each line in the program.

  NEW

  10 X% = 15
  20 X = 23.5
  30 X$ = "THE SUM OF X% + X ="
  40 PRINT "X% = "; X%, "X = "; X
  50 PRINT X$; X% + X

  If  you  did  everything  as shown, you should get the following result
printed on the screen.

  RUN
  X% = 15    X = 23.5
  THE SUM OF X% + X = 38.5
  READY

  We've put together all the tricks learned so far  to format the display
as you see it and print the sum of the two variables.
  In lines  10 and 20  we assigned an integer value to X%  and assigned a
floating  point  value  to  X.  This puts the number  associated with the
variable in its box. In line 30, we assigned a text string to X$. Line 40
combines  the  two  types  of PRINT statements to print a message and the
actual value of  X% and X.  Line 50 prints the text string assigned to X$
and the sum of X% and X.
  Note  that  even  though  X  is used as part of each variable name, the
identifiers '%' and '$' make  X%,  X,  and  X$ unique,  thus representing
three distinct variables.
  But  variables are much more powerful.  If you change their value,  the
new value replaces the original value in the same box. This allows you to
write a statement like:

  X = X + 1

  This would never be accepted in normal algebra,  but is one of the most
used concepts in programming.  It means: take the current value of X, add
one to it and place the new sum into the box representing X.


3.4. IF ... THEN

  Armed with the ability to easily update the value of variables,  we can
now try a program such as:

  NEW

  10 CT = 0
  20 ? "COMMODORE 64"
  30 CT = CT + 1
  40 IF CT < 5 THEN 20
  50 END

  RUN
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64

  What we've done is introduce two new BASIC commands,  and provided some
control  over our runaway little print program introduced at the start of
this chapter.
  IF ... THEN adds some logic to the program.  If  says  IF  a  condition
holds true THEN do something. IF the condition no longer holds true, THEN
do the next line in the program.
  A number of conditions can be set up in using an IF ... THEN statement:

  SYMBOL      MEANING
    <         Less Than
    >         Greater Than
    =         Equal To
    <>        Not Equal To
    >=        Greater Than or Equal To
    <=        Less Than or Equal To

  The  use  of  any  one  of these conditions is simple, yet surprisingly
powerful.

       10 CT = 0
  +--> 20 ? "COMMODORE 64"
  |    30 CT = CT + 1
  +-<- 40 IF CT < 5 THEN 20
       |
       !
       50 END

  In the sample program,  we've set up a "loop"  that has some constrains
placed  on  it  by  saying:  IF a value is less than some number  THEN do
something.
  Line 10 sets CT (CounT) equal to 0. Line 20 prints our message. Line 30
adds one  to the variable CT.  This line counts  how many times we do the
loop. Each time the loop is executed, CT goes up by one.
  Line  40  is  our  control  line.  If  CT is less than 5, meaning we've
executed the loop less than 5 times, the program goes back to line 20 and
prints again.  When CT becomes equal to 5  -- indicating 5 COMMODORE 64's
were  printed  --  the program goes to line 50,  which signals to END the
program.
  Try  program  and see what we mean. By changing the CT limit in line 40
you can have any number of lines printed.
  IF ... THEN  has  a  multitude of other uses, which we'll see in future
examples.


3.5. FOR ... NEXT Loops

  There is a simpler,  and preferred way to accomplish what we did in the
previous example by using a FOR ... NEXT loop. Consider the following:

  NEW

  10 FOR CT = 1 TO 5
  20 ? "COMMODORE 64"
  30 NEXT CT

  RUN
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64
  COMMODORE 64

  As you can see, the program has become much smaller and more direct.
  CT starts at 1 in line 10. Then, line 20 does some printing. In line 30
CT is incremented by 1. The NEXT statement in line 30 automatically sends
the  program  back  to  line 10  where the FOR part  of the  FOR ... NEXT
statement  is  located.  This process will continue  until CT reaches the
limit you entered.
  The variable  used in a FOR ... NEXT loop can be incremented by smaller
amounts than 1, if needed.
  Try this:

  NEW

  10 FOR NB = 1 TO 10 STEP .5
  20 PRINT NB,
  30 NEXT NB

  RUN
  1          1.5           2             2.5
  3          3.5           4             4.5
  5          5.5           6             6.5
  7          7.5           8             8.5
  9          9.5           10

  If you enter and run this program, you'll see the numbers from 1 to 10,
by .5, printed across the display.
  All we're doing here  is printing the values that NB assumes as it goes
through the loop.
  You can even specify  whether the variable is increasing or decreasing.
Substitute the following for line 10:

  10 FOR NB = 10 TO 1 STEP -.5

and  watch  the  opposite  occur,  as  NB goes from 10 to 1 in descending
order.



4. ADVANCED BASIC


4.1. Introduction

  The  next  few  chapters  have  been written for people who have become
relatively  familiar with the BASIC programming language and the concepts
necessary to write more advanced programs.
  For  those of you who are just staring to learn how to program, you may
find   some  of  the  information  a  bit  too  technical  to  understand
completely. But take heart ... because for these two fun chapters, SPRITE
GRAPHICS and  CREATING SOUND,  we've set up some simple examples that are
written  for the new user.  The examples will give you a good idea of how
to  use  the  sophisticated  sound and graphics capabilities available on
your COMMODORE 64.
  If  you  decide  that  you want to learn more about writing programs in
BASIC, we've put a bibliography (Appendix N) in the back of this manual.
  If you are already familiar with BASIC programming, these chapters will
help  you  get  started with advanced BASIC programming techniques.  More
detailed  information  can  be  found  in  the  COMMODORE 64 PROGRAMMER'S
REFERENCE MANUAL, available through your local Commodore dealer.


4.2. Simple Animation

  Let's  exercise  some  of  the  Commodore 64's  graphic capabilities by
putting  together  what  we've  seen  so  far,  together  with  a few new
concepts. If you're ambitious, type in the following program and see what
happens.  You  will  notice  that within the print statements we can also
include cursor controls and screen commands.  When you see something like
{CRSR LEFT} in a program listing,  hold the <SHIFT> key and hit the <CRSR
LEFT/RIGHT>  key.  The  screen  will show the graphic representation of a
cursor  left  (two  vertical reversed bars).  In  the same way,  pressing
<SHIFT> and <CLR/HOME> shows as a reversed heart.

  NEW

  10  REM BOUNCING BALL
  20  PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
  25  FOR X=1 to 10 : PRINT "{CRSR DOWN}" : NEXT
  30  FOR BL=1 to 40
  40  PRINT" O{CRSR LEFT}"; : REM (O is a SHIFT-Q)
  50  FOR TM=1 TO 5
  60  NEXT TM
  70  NEXT BL
  75  REM MOVE BALL RIGHT TO LEFT
  80  FOR BL=40 TO 1 STEP -1
  90  PRINT" {CRSR LEFT}{CRSR LEFT}O{CRSR LEFT}";
  100 FOR TM=1 TO 5
  110 NEXT TM
  120 NEXT BL
  130 GOTO 20

NOTES:  The  ':' in lines 25 and 40 indicates new command.  The spaces in
lines 40 and 90 are intentional.

TIP: All  words in this text will be completed on one line.  However,  as
long  as  you  don't  hit <RETURN> your 64 will automatically move to the
next line even in the middle of a word.

  The program will display a bouncing ball moving from left to right, and
back again, across the screen.
  If  we  look  at  the  program  closely,  you can see how this feat was
accomplished.

       10  REM BOUNCING BALL
+----> 20  PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
| +--> 25  FOR X=1 to 10 : PRINT "{CRSR DOWN}" : NEXT
| |    30  FOR BL=1 to 40
| |    40  PRINT" O{CRSR LEFT}"; : REM (O is a SHIFT-Q)
| | +> 50  FOR TM=1 TO 5
| | +- 60  NEXT TM
| +--- 70  NEXT BL
|      75  REM MOVE BALL RIGHT TO LEFT
| +--> 80  FOR BL=40 TO 1 STEP -1
| |    90  PRINT" {CRSR LEFT}{CRSR LEFT}O{CRSR LEFT}";
| | +> 100 FOR TM=1 TO 5
| | +- 110 NEXT TM
| +--- 120 NEXT BL
+----- 130 GOTO 20

  Line  10  is a REMark that just tells what the program does;  it has no
effect  on  the  program  itself.  Line  20  clears  the  screen  of  any
information.
  Line 25 PRINTs 10 cursor-down commands. This just positions the ball in
the middle of the screen.  If line 25 was eliminated  the ball would move
across the top line of the screen.
  Line 30 sets up a loop for moving the ball the 40 columns from the left
to right.
  Line 40  does  a  lot  of  work.  It  first prints a space to erase the
previous ball positions, then it prints the ball, and finally it performs
a cursor-left  to get everything ready to erase the current ball position
again.
  The  loop  set  up  in  lines  50  and  60 slows the ball down a bit by
delaying the program. Without it, the ball would move too fast to see.
  Line 70  completes the loop that prints balls on the screen,  set up in
line 30.  Each time the loop is executed, the ball moves another space to
the  right.  As  you notice from the illustration,  we have set up a loop
within a loop.
  This is perfectly acceptable.  The only time you get in trouble is when
the  loops  cross  over  each other.  It's helpful in writing programs to
check  yourself  as  illustrated here to make sure the logic of a loop is
correct.
  To see what would happen if you cross a loop, reverse the statements in
lines 60 and 70. You will get an error because the computer gets confused
and cannot figure out what's going on.
  Lines  80  through  120 just reverse the steps in the first part of the
program,  and  move  the  ball  from  right to left.  Line 90 is slightly
different  from  line  40  because  the  ball  is  moving in the opposite
direction (we have to erase the ball to the right and move to the left).
  And when that's all done  the program goes back to line 20 to start the
whole  process  over  again.  Pretty neat!  To stop the program hold down
<RESTORE> and hit <RUN/STOP>.
  For a variation on the program, edit line 40 to read:

  40 PRINT"O";  To make the O, hold SHIFT key down and hit the letter "Q"

  Run  the  program  and  see  what happens now.  Because we left out the
cursor control,  each ball remains on the screen until erased by the ball
moving right to left in the second part of the program.


4.3. INPUT

  Up  to now,  everything within a program has been set before it is run.
Once the program was started,  nothing could be changed.  INPUT allows us
to  pass  new information to a program as it is running and have that new
information acted upon.
  To get an idea of how INPUT works,  type  NEW  <RETURN>  and enter this
short program:

  10 INPUT A$
  20 PRINT "YOU TYPED: ";A$
  30 PRINT
  40 GOTO 10
  RUN
  ? COMMODORE 64  <--------------- You typed
  YOU TYPED: COMMODORE 64   <----- Computer responded

  What  happens  when  you  run this simple program. A question mark will
appear,  indicating  that  the  computer  is  waiting  for  you  to  type
something. Enter any character, or group of characters, from the keyboard
and  hit  <RETURN>.  The  computer  will  then  respond with "YOU TYPED:"
followed by the information you entered.
  This  may  seem  very  elementary,  but  imagine  what you can have the
computer do with any information you enter.
  You  can  INPUT  either numeric or string variables,  and even have the
INPUT statement prompt the user with a message. The format of INPUT is:

  INPUT "PROMPT MESSAGE";VARIABLE
         ^
         +---- Prompt must be 38 characters or less

Or, just:

  INPUT VARIABLE

NOTE:  To  get out of this program hold down the <RUN/STOP> and <RESTORE>
keys.

  The  following  program  is not only useful,  but demonstrates a lot of
what has been presented so far, including the new input statement.

  NEW

    1 REM TEMPERATURE CONVERSION PROGRAM
    5 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
   10 PRINT "CONVERT FROM FAHRENHEIT OR CELSIUS (F/C): ": INPUT A$
   20 IF A$ = "" THEN 10  <----------------------- No space within quotes
   30 IF A$ = "F" THEN 100
   40 IF A$ <> "C" THEN 10
   50 INPUT "ENTER DEGREES CELSIUS: ";C
   60 F = (C*9)/5+32
   70 PRINT C;" DEG. CELSIUS ="; F ;"DEG. FAHRENHEIT"
   80 PRINT
   90 GOTO 10
  100 INPUT "ENTER DEGREES FAHRENHEIT: ";F  <- Don't forget to hit RETURN
  110 C = (F-32)*/5/9
  120 PRINT F;" DEG. FAHRENHEIT ="; C ;"DEG. CELSIUS"
  130 PRINT
  140 GOTO 10

  If you entered and run this program, you'll see INPUT in action.
  Line 10  uses  the input statement to not only gather information,  but
also print our prompt. Also notice that we can ask for either a number or
string (by using a numeric or string variable).
  Lines 20, 30, and 40 do some checks on what is typed in. In line 20, if
nothing is entered (just <RETURN> is hit),  then the program goes back to
line 10 and requests the input again. In line 30, if F is typed, you know
the user wants to convert a temperature in degrees Fahrenheit to Celsius,
so the program branches to the part that does that conversion.
  Line  40 does one more check.  We know there are only two valid choices
the  user  can enter.  To get to line 40,   the user must have typed some
character other than F.  Now, a check is made to see if that character is
a C; if not, the program requests input again.
  This  may  seem  like  a  lot  of  detail,  but  it is good programming
practice. A user not familiar with the program can become very frustrated
if  it  does  something  strange  because  a  mistake  was  made entering
information.
  Once we determine what type of conversion to perform,  the program does
the  calculation and prints out the temperature entered and the converted
temperature.
  The  calculation  is just straight math,  using the established formula
for temperature conversion.  After the calculation is finished and answer
printed, the program loops back and starts over.
  After running, the screen might look like this:

  CONVERT FROM FAHRENHEIT OR CELSIUS (F/C): ? F
  ENTER DEGREES FAHRENHEIT: 32
  32 DEG. FAHRENHEIT = 0 DEG. CELSIUS

  CONVERT FROM FAHRENHEIT OR CELSIUS (F/C): ?

  After running the program,  make sure to save it on disk or tape.  This
program,  as well as others presented throughout the manual, can form the
base of your program library.


4.4. GET

  GET  allows  you  to  input  one  character at a time from the keyboard
without  hitting  <RETURN>.  This  really  speeds  entering  data in many
applications.  Whatever  key  is hit is assigned variable to the variable
you specify with GET.
  The following routine illustrates how GET works:

  NEW

   1 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
  10 GET A$: IF A$ = "" THEN 10
  20 PRINT A$;        ^
  30 GOTO 10          |-------------- No SPACE here

  If you RUN the program,  the screen will clear  and each time you hit a
key,  line  20  will  print  it  on  the  display,  and  then GET another
character. It is important to note that the character entered will not be
displayed  unless you specifically PRINT it to the screen,  as we've done
here.
  The  second  statement  on  line 10 is also important.  GET continually
works,  even  if  no  key  is  pressed  (unlike  INPUT  that  waits for a
response),  so  the  second  part  of  this  line  continually checks the
keyboard until a key is hit.
  See what happens if the second part of line 10 is eliminated.
  To stop this program you can hit the <RUN/STOP> and <RESTORE> keys.
  The  first  part  of the temperature conversion program could easily be
rewritten to use GET. LOAD the temperature conversion program, and modify
lines 10,20 and 40 as shown:

  10 PRINT "CONVERT FROM FAHRENHEIT OR CELSIUS (F/C) ?"
  20 GET A$: IF A$ = "" THEN 20  <---------------- No space within quotes
  30 IF A$ <> "C" THEN 20

  This  modification  will  make the program operate smoother, as nothing
will  happen  unless  the  user  types in one of the desired responses to
select the type of conversion.
  Once  this  change  is made,  make sure you save the new version of the
program.


4.5. Random Numbers and Other Functions

  The  Commodore 64  contains  a  number  of  functions  that are used to
perform  special  operations.  Functions  could be thought of as built-in
programs  included  in  BASIC.  But  rather  than  typing  in a number of
statements  each time you need to perform a specialized calculation,  you
just  type the command for the desired function and the computer does the
rest.
  Many  times  when designing a game or educational program,  you need to
generate a random number, to simulate the throw of dice, for example. You
could certainly write a program that would generate these numbers, but an
easier way to call upon the RaNDom number function.
  To see what RND actually does, try this short program:

  NEW

  10 FOR X = 1 TO 10
  20 PRINT RND(1),    <------------ If you leave out the comma, your list
  30 NEXT                           of numbers will appear as 1 column

  After running the program, you will see a display like this:

   .789280697          .664673958
   .256373663          .0123442287
   .682952381          3.90587279E-04
   .402343724          .879300926
   .158209063          .245596701

  Your numbers don't match? Well, if they did we would all be in trouble,
as they should be completely random!
  Try running the program a few more times to verify that the results are
always  different.  Even  if  the  numbers don't follow any pattern,  you
should  start  to  notice that some things remain the same every time the
program is run.
  First,  the results are always between 0 and 1, but never equal to 0 or
1. This will certainly never do if we want to simulate the random toss of
dice, since we're looking for numbers between 1 and 6.
  The  other  important  feature  to look for is that we are dealing with
real  numbers  (with decimal places).  This could also be a problem since
whole (integer) numbers are often needed.
  There  are  a  number  of  simple  ways to produce numbers from the RND
function in the range desired.
  Replace line 20 with following and run the program again:

  20 PRINT 6*RND(1),

  RUN

   3.60563664          4.53660853
   5.47238963          8.40850227
   3.19265054          4.39547668
   3.16331095          5.50620749
   9.32527884          4.17090293

  That  cured  the  problem  of not having results larger than 1,  but we
still  have  the  decimal part of the result to deal with.  Now,  another
function can be called upon.
  The INTeger function converts real numbers into integer values.
  Once  more,  replace  line 20 with the following and run the program to
see the effect of the change:

  20 PRINT INT(6*RND(1)),

  RUN

   2         3         1         0
   2         4         5         5
   0         1

  That  took  care  of  a lot,  getting us closer to our original goal of
generating random numbers between 1 and 6. If you examine closely what we
generated this last time, you'll find that the results range from 0 to 5,
only.
  As a last step, add a one to the statement, as follows:

  20 PRINT INT(6*RND(1))+1,

  Now, we have achieved the desired results.
  In general,  you can place a number, variable,  or any BASIC expression
within  the  parentheses  of  the  INT  function.  Depending on the range
desired,  you  just  multiply  the  upper limit by the RND function.  For
example, to generate random numbers between 1 and 25, you could type:

  20 PRINT INT(25*RND(1))+1,

  The general formula for generating a set of random numbers in a certain
range is:

  NUMBER=INT(LOWER+(UPPER-LOWER+1)*RND(1))


4.6. Guessing Game

  Since we've gone to some lengths to understand random numbers,  why not
put  this  information to use?  The following game not only illustrates a
good  use  of  random  numbers,   but  also  introduces  some  additional
programming theory.
  In running this program, a random number, NM, will be generated.

  NEW

    1 REM NUMBER GUESSING GAME
    2 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
    5 INPUT "ENTER UPPER LIMIT FOR GUESS ";LI
   10 NM = INT(LI*RND(1))+1
   15 CN = 0
   20 PRINT "I'VE GOT THE NUMBER." : PRINT
   30 INPUT "WHAT'S YOUR GUESS "; GU
   35 CN = CN + 1
   40 IF GU > NM THEN PRINT "MY NUMBER IS LOWER." : PRINT : GOTO 30
   50 IF GU < NM THEN PRINT "MY NUMBER IS HIGHER.": PRINT : GOTO 30
   60 PRINT "GREAT! YOU GOT MY NUMBER"
   65 PRINT "IN ONLY"; CN ;"GUESSES." : PRINT
   70 PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO TRY ANOTHER (Y/N) ?";
   80 GET AN$ : IF AN$ = "" THEN 80
   90 IF AN$ = "Y" THEN 2
  100 IF AN$ <> "N" THEN 70
  110 END

  You  can  specify  how  large  the  number  will be at the start of the
program. Then, it's up to you to guess what the number is.
  A sample run follows along with an explanation.

  ENTER UPPER LIMIT FOR GUESS ? 25
  I'VE GOT THE NUMBER.

  WHAT'S YOUR NUMBER GUESS ? 15
  MY NUMBER IS HIGHER.

  WHAT'S YOUR NUMBER GUESS ? 20
  MY NUMBER IS LOWER.

  WHAT'S YOUR NUMBER GUESS ? 19
  GREAT! YOU GOT MY NUMBER
  IN ONLY 3 GUESSES.

  DO YOU WANT TO TRY ANOTHER (Y/N) ?

  IF/THEN   statements  compare  your  guess  to  the  number  generated.
Depending  on  your  guess,  the program tells you whether your guess was
higher or lower than the random number generated.
  From the formula given for determining random number range,  see if you
can  add  a  few lines to the program that allow the user to also specify
the lower range of numbers generated.
  Each time you make a guess, CN is incremented by 1 to keep track of the
number  of  guesses.  In  using  the  program,  see  if  you can use good
reasoning to guess a number in the least number of tries.
  When  you get the right answer,  the program prints out the "GREAT! YOU
GOT MY NUMBER" message,  along with the number of tries it took.  You can
then start the process over again.  Remember, the program generates a new
random number each time.

PROGRAMMING TIPS:

  In line 40 and 50, a colon is used to separate multiple statements on a
single  line.  This  not  only  saves  typing,  but in long programs will
conserve memory space.
  Also  notice  in  the  IF/THEN  statements  on  the same two lines,  we
instructed  the  computer  to  PRINT  something,  rather than immediately
branching to some other point in the program.
  The  last  point  illustrates  the  reason behind using line numbers in
increments of  10.  After the program was written,  we decided to add the
count  part.  By  just  adding those new lines at the end of the program,
numbered  to  fall  between  the  proper existing lines,  the program was
easily modified.


4.7. Your Roll

  The following program simulates the throw of two dice. You can enjoy it
as it stands, or use it as part of a larger game.

   5 PRINT "CARE TO TRY YOUR LUCK?"
  10 PRINT "RED DICE   =";INT(6*RND(1))+1
  20 PRINT "WHITE DICE =";INT(6*RND(1))+1
  30 PRINT "HIT SPACE BAR FOR ANOTHER ROLL" : PRINT
  40 GET A$ : IF A$ = "" THEN 40
  50 IF A$ = CHR$(32) THEN 10

  From what you've learned about random numbers and BASIC, see if you can
follow what is going on.


4.8. Random Graphics

  As a final note on random numbers,  and as an introduction to designing
graphics, take a moment to enter and run this neat little program:

  10 REM MAZE
  20 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
  30 PRINT CHR$(205.5+RND(1));
  40 GOTO 20

  As  you  may have expected,  line 20 is the key here. Another function,
CHR$ (Character String),  gives you a character, based on a standard code
number  from  0  to  255.  Every  character the Commodore 64 can print is
encoded this way (see Appendix F).
  To quickly find out the code for any character, just type:

  PRINT ASC("X")

where  X  is  the  character  you're checking  (this can be any printable
character,  including  graphics).  The  response  is  the  code  for  the
character  you  typed.  As  you  probably  figured out,  "ASC" is another
function,  which  returns the standard "ASCII" code for the character you
typed.
  You can now print that character by typing:

  PRINT CHR$(X)

  If you try typing:

  PRINT CHR$(205); CHR$(206)

you  will  see the two right side graphic characters on the M and N keys.
These are two characters that the program is using for the maze.
  By  using  the  formula  205.5 + RND(1) the computer will pick a random
number  between  205.5  and  206.5.  There is a fifty-fifty chance of the
number being above or below 206.  CHR$ ignores any fractional values,  so
half  the  time  the character with code 205 is printed and the remaining
time code 206 is displayed.
  If  you'd  like to experiment with this program,  try changing 205.5 by
adding  or  subtracting  a couple  tenths from it.  This will give either
character a greater chance of being selected.



5. ADVANCED COLOR AND GRAPHIC COMMANDS


5.1. Color and Graphics

  Up   to   now  we've  explored  some  of  the  sophisticated  computing
capabilities  of  the  Commodore 64.  But  one  of  its  most fascinating
features is an outstanding ability to produce color and graphics.
  You've  seen  a  quick example  of  graphics in the "bouncing ball" and
"maze"  programs.  But  these  only  touched  on the power you command. A
number  of  new  concepts  will  be introduced in this section to explain
graphic  and color programming and show how you can create your own games
and advanced animation.
  Because  we've  concentrated  on  the  computing  capabilities  of  the
machine,  all  the  displays  we've  generated so far were a single color
(light blue text on a dark blue background, with a light blue border).
  In this chapter we'll see how to add color to programs  and control all
those strange graphic symbols on the keyboard.


5.2. PRINTing Colors

  As  you discovered  if you tried the color alignment test in Chapter 1,
you  can  change  text colors by simply holding the <CTRL> key and one of
the color keys.  This works fine in the immediate mode,  but what happens
if you want to incorporate color changes in your programs?
  When  we  showed  the  "bouncing ball"  program,  you  saw how keyboard
commands,  like  cursor  movement,  could  be  incorporated  within PRINT
statements.  In  a like way,  you can also add text color changes to your
programs.
  You have a full range of 16 text colors to work with.  Using <CTRL> key
and a number key, the following colors are available:

     1        2        3        4        5       6        7        8
   Black    White     Red     Cyan    Purple   Green    Blue    Yellow

  If  you  hold  down the <C=> key along with the appropriate number key,
these additional eight colors can be used:

     1        2        3        4        5       6        7        8
   Orange   Brown   Lt.Red    Gray 1  Gray 2  Lt.Green  Lt.Blue  Gray 3

  Type NEW,  and experiment with the following.  Hold down the <CTRL> key
and  at  the  same  time hit the <1> key.  Next,  hit the <R> key without
holding down the <CTRL> key.  Now,  while again depressing the <CTRL> key
at the same time hit the <2> key.  Release the <CTRL> key and hit the <A>
key. Move through the numbers, alternating with the letters, and type out
the word RAINBOW as follows:

  10 PRINT " R A I N B O W"
            ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^
     <CTRL><1 2 3 4 5 6 7>

  RUN
  RAINBOW

  Just  as  cursor  controls  show as graphic characters within the quote
marks of print statements, color controls are also represented as graphic
characters.
  In  the  previous  example,  when  you held down <CTRL> and typed <3> a
"{Pound Sign}"  was displayed.  <CTRL> <7>  displayed a "<-".  Each color
control  will  display its unique graphic code when used in this way. The
table shows the graphic representations of each printable color control.


  KEYBOARD    COLOR      DISPLAY         KEYBOARD    COLOR      DISPLAY
  ---------------------------------------------------------------------
  <CTRL><1>   BLACK                      <C=><1>     ORANGE
  <CTRL><2>   WHITE                      <C=><2>     BROWN
  <CTRL><3>   RED                        <C=><3>     LT. RED
  <CTRL><4>   CYAN                       <C=><4>     GRAY 1
  <CTRL><5>   PURPLE                     <C=><5>     GRAY 2
  <CTRL><6>   GREEN                      <C=><6>     LT. GREEN
  <CTRL><7>   BLUE                       <C=><7>     LT. BLUE
  <CTRL><8>   YELLOW                     <C=><8>     GRAY 3

  Even  though  the PRINT statement may look a bit strange on the screen,
when  you RUN the program,  only the text will be displayed.  And it will
automatically change colors according to the color controls you placed in
the print statement.
  Try  a  few examples of your own,  mixing any number of colors within a
single PRINT statement. Remember, too, you can use the second set of text
colors by using the Commodore key and the number keys.

TIP: You will notice after running a program with color or mode (reverse)
changes, that the "READY." prompt and any additional text you type is the
same as the last color or mode change. To get back to the normal display,
remember to depress: <RUN/STOP> and <RESTORE>.


5.3. Color CHR$ Codes

  Take a brief look at Appendix F, then turn back to this section.
  You may have noticed in looking over the list of CHR$ codes in Appendix
F  that  each  color  (as  well as most other keyboard controls,  such as
cursor movement)  has a unique code.  These codes can be printed directly
to  obtain the same results as typing CTRL and the appropriate key within
the PRINT statement.
  For example, try this:

  NEW
  10 PRINT CHR$(147) : REM {CLR/HOME}
  20 PRINT CHR$(30); "CHR$(30) CHANGES ME TO?"

  RUN
  CHR$(30) CHANGES ME TO?

  The  text should now be green.  In many cases,  using the CHR$ function
will  be much easier,  especially if you want to experiment with changing
colors.  The  following  program  is  a different way to get a rainbow of
colors.  Since  there are a number of lines that are similar (40-110) use
editing keys to save a lot of typing.  See the notes after the listing to
refresh your memory on the editing procedures.

  NEW

    1 REM AUTOMATIC COLOR BARS
    5 PRINT CHR$(147) : REM CHR$(147) = CLR/HOME
   10 PRINT CHR$(18); "     "; : REM REVERSE BAR
   20 CL = INT(8*RND(1))+1
   30 ON CL GOTO 40,50,60,70,80,90,100,110
   40 PRINT CHR$(5); : GOTO 10
   50 PRINT CHR$(28); : GOTO 10
   60 PRINT CHR$(30); : GOTO 10
   70 PRINT CHR$(31); : GOTO 10
   80 PRINT CHR$(144); : GOTO 10
   90 PRINT CHR$(156); : GOTO 10
  100 PRINT CHR$(158); : GOTO 10
  110 PRINT CHR$(159); : GOTO 10

  Type lines 1 through 40 normally. Your display should look like this:

   1 REM AUTOMATIC COLOR BARS
   5 PRINT CHR$(147) : REM CHR$(147) = CLR/HOME
  10 PRINT CHR$(18); "     "; : REM REVERSE BAR
  20 CL = INT(8*RND(1))+1
  30 ON CL GOTO 40,50,60,70,80,90,100,110
  40 PRINT CHR$(5); : GOTO 10

EDITING NOTES

   Use the  <CRSR UP> key to position the cursor on line 40.  Then type 5
over the 4 of 40. Next, use the <CRSR RIGHT> key to move over to the 5 in
the CHR$ parentheses.  Hit <SHIFT> <INST/DEL> to open up a space and type
'28'. Now just hit <RETURN> with the cursor anywhere on the line.
  The display should now look like this:

   1 REM AUTOMATIC COLOR BARS
   5 PRINT CHR$(147) : REM CHR$(147) = CLR/HOME
  10 PRINT CHR$(18); "     "; : REM REVERSE BAR
  20 CL = INT(8*RND(1))+1
  30 ON CL GOTO 40,50,60,70,80,90,100,110
  50 PRINT CHR$(28); : GOTO 10

  Don't worry.  Line 40 is still there.  LIST the program and see.  Using
the  same  procedure,  continue  to  modify the last line with a new line
number  and  CHR$  code  until all the remaining lines have been entered.
See,  we told you the editing keys would come in handy. As a final check,
list  the entire program to make sure all the lines were entered properly
before you RUN it.
  Here is a short explanation of what's going on.
  You've probably figured out most of the color bar program by now except
for some strange new statement in line 30. But let's quickly see what the
whole program actually does. Line 5 prints the CHR$ code for CLR/HOME.
  Line 10 turns reverse type on and prints 5 spaces, which turn out to be
a bar, since they're reversed. The first time through the program the bar
will be light blue, the normal text color.
  Line 20  uses  our  workhorse,  the  random function to select a random
color between 1 and 8.
  Line 30 contains  a  variation  of  the  IF ... THEN statement which is
called ON ... GOTO.  ON ... GOTO allows the program to choose from a list
of  line numbers to go to.  If the variable (in this case CL) has a value
of 1, the first line number is the one chosen (here 40).  If the value is
2, the second number in the list is used, etc.
  Lines 40-110 just convert our random key colors to the appropriate CHR$
code for that color  and return the program to line 10 to PRINT a section
of the bar in that color. Then the whole process starts over again.
  See  if you can figure out how to produce 16 random numbers,  expand ON
... GOTO to handle them,  and add the remaining CHR$ codes to display the
remaining 8 colors.


5.4. PEEKs and POKEs

  No,  we're not talking about jobbing the computer,  but we will be able
to "look around" inside the machine and "stick" things in there.
  Just  as  variables  could be thought of as a representation of "boxes"
within the machine where you placed your information,  you can also think
of  some  specially  defined  "boxes"  within the computer that represent
specific memory locations.
  The  Commodore 64  looks  at  these  memory  locations  to see what the
screen's background and border color should be, what characters are to be
displayed on the screen -- and where -- and a host of other tasks.
  By  placing,  "POKEing",  a  different  value  into  the  proper memory
location,  we can change colors, define and move objects, and even create
music.
  These memory locations could be represented like this:

  +-----------+     +-----------+      +-----------+      +-----------+
  |   53280   |     |   53281   |      |   53282   |      |   53283   |
  |     X     |     |     Y     |      |           |      |           |
  +-----------+     +-----------+      +-----------+      +-----------+

     BORDER          BACKGROUND
     COLOR             COLOR

  Above  we  showed just four locations,  two of which control the screen
and background colors. Try typing this:

  POKE 53281,7 <RETURN>

  The  background  color  of  the screen will change to yellow because we
placed the value '7' --  for yellow --  in the location that controls the
background color of the screen.
  Try  POKEing  different values into the background color location,  and
see  what results you get.  You can POKE any value between 0 and 255, but
only 0 through 15 will work.
  The actual values to POKE for each color are:

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|       0       BLACK                  8        ORANGE                  |
|       1       WHITE                  9        BROWN                   |
|       2       RED                   10        Light RED               |
|       3       CYAN                  11        GRAY 1                  |
|       4       PURPLE                12        GRAY 2                  |
|       5       GREEN                 13        Light GREEN             |
|       6       BLUE                  14        Light BLUE              |
|       7       YELLOW                15        GRAY 3                  |
+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+

  Can  you  think  of  a way to display the various background and border
combinations? The following may be of some help:

  NEW

  10 FOR BA = 0 TO 15
  20 FOR BO = 0 TO 15
  30 POKE 53280, BO
  40 POKE 53281, BA
  50 FOR X = 1 TO 2000 : NEXT X
  60 NEXT BO : NEXT BA

  Two  simple  loops  were  set  up  to POKE various values to change the
background and border colors. The DELAY loop in line 50 just slows things
down a bit.
  For the curious, try:

  ? PEEK(53280) AND 15

  You  should get a value of 15.  This is the last value BORDER was given
and  makes  sense  because both the background and border colors are GRAY
(value 15) after the program is run.
  By entering AND 15 you eliminate all other values except 1-15,  because
of  the  way  color codes are stored in the computer.  Normally you would
expect  to  find  the  same value that was last POKEd in the location. In
general,  PEEK lets us examine a specific location  and see what value is
presently there. Can you think of a one line addition to the program that
will display the value of BACK and BORDER as the program runs?  How about
this:

  25 PRINT CHR$(147); "BORDER =";PEEK(53280) AND 15,
     "BACKGROUND ="; PEEK(53281) AND 15


5.5. Screen Graphics

  In all the printing information  that you've done so far,  the computer
normally  handled  information in a sequential fashion:  one character is
printed after the next, starting from the current cursor position (except
where you asked for a new line, or used the ',' in PRINT formatting).
  To PRINT data in a particular spot  you can start from a known place on
the screen  and PRINT the proper number of cursor controls  to format the
display. But this takes program steps and is time consuming.
  But  just  as  there  are certain spots in the Commodore 64's memory to
control  color,  there  are  also  locations that you can use to directly
control each location on the screen.

SCREEN MEMORY MAP

  Since  the  computer's screen is capable of holding 1000 characters (40
columns by 25 lines)  there are 1000 memory locations set aside to handle
what  is placed on the screen.  The layout of the screen could be thought
of as a grid, with each square representing a memory location.
  And  since  each location in memory can contain a number from 0 to 255,
there  are  256  possible  values for each memory location.  These values
represent  the  different  characters  the  Commodore 64 can display (see
Appendix E).  By  POKEing  the  value  for a character in the appropriate
screen  memory  location,  that character will be displayed in the proper
position.
  Screen  memory  in  the Commodore 64 normally begins at memory location
1024,  and ends at location 2023.  Location 1024 is the upper left corner
of the screen. Location 1025 is the position of the next character to the
right  of that,  and so on down the row.  Location 1063 is the right-most
position of the first row. The next location following the last character
on a row is the first character on the next row down.

                                 COLUMN                             1063
      0             10             20             30            39 /
     +------------------------------------------------------------/
1024 |                                                            |  0
1064 |                                                            |
1104 |                                                            |
1144 |                                                            |
1184 |                                                            |
1224 |                                                            |
1264 |                                                            |
1304 |                                                            |
1344 |                                                            |
1384 |                                                            |
1424 |                                                            | 10
1464 |                                                            |
1504 |                                                            |   ROW
1544 |                                                            |
1584 |                                                            |
1624 |                                                            |
1664 |                                                            |
1704 |                                                            |
1744 |                                                            |
1784 |                                                            |
1824 |                                                            | 20
1864 |                                                            |
1904 |                                                            |
1944 |                                                            |
1984 |                                                            | 24
     +------------------------------------------------------------\
                                                                   \
                                                                    2023

  Now,  let's  say that you're controlling a ball bouncing on the screen.
The ball is in the middle of the screen,  column 20, row 12.  The formula
for calculation of the memory location on the screen is:

  POINT = 1024 + X + 40 * Y
                 ^        ^
                 |        |__ Column
                 |___________ Row

where X is the column and Y is the row.
  Therefore, the memory location of the ball is:

  1024 + 20 + 480  or  1524
         ^     ^
         |     |_____________ Row (40 * 12)
         |___________________ Column

Clear the screen with <SHIFT> and <CLR/HOME> and type:

  POKE 1524, 81
  POKE 55796, 1
         ^    ^
         |    |______ Color
         |___________ Location


COLOR MEMORY MAP

  A ball appears in the middle of the screen! You have placed a character
directly  into screen memory without using the PRINT statement.  The ball
that appeared was white. However there is a way to change the color of an
object on the screen by altering another range of memory. Type:

  POKE 55796, 2
         ^    ^
         |    |______ Color
         |___________ Location

  The  ball's color changes to red.  For every spot on the Commodore 64's
screen  there are two memory locations,  one for the character code,  and
the  other  for  the color code.  The color memory map begins at location
55296 (top left-hand  corner),  and continues on for 1000 locations.  The
same color codes, from 0-15, that we used to change border and background
colors can be used here to directly change character colors.

                                 COLUMN                             55335
      0             10             20             30            39 /
     +------------------------------------------------------------/
55296|                                                            |  0
55336|                                                            |
55376|                                                            |
55416|                                                            |
55456|                                                            |
55496|                                                            |
55536|                                                            |
55576|                                                            |
55616|                                                            |
55656|                                                            |
55696|                                                            | 10
55736|                                                            |
55776|                                                            |   ROW
55816|                                                            |
55856|                                                            |
55896|                                                            |
55936|                                                            |
55976|                                                            |
56016|                                                            |
56056|                                                            |
56096|                                                            | 20
56136|                                                            |
56176|                                                            |
56216|                                                            |
56256|                                                            | 24
     +------------------------------------------------------------\
                                                                   56295

  The  formula  we  used  for  calculating screen memory locations can be
modified to give the locations to POKE color codes. The new formula is:

  COLOR PRINT = 55296 + X + 40 * Y


5.6. More Bouncing Balls

  Here's  a  revised  bouncing  ball  program that prints directly on the
screen with POKEs, rather than using controls within PRINT statements. As
you will see after running the program, it is much more flexible than the
earlier program,  and will lead up to programming much more sophisticated
animation.

  NEW

   10 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
   20 POKE 53280,7 : POKE 53281,13
   30 X = 1 : Y = 1
   40 DX = 1 : DY = 1
   50 POKE 1024 + X + 40 * Y, 81
   60 FOR T = 1 TO 10 : NEXT
   70 POKE 1024 + X + 40 * Y, 32
   80 X = X + DX
   90 IF X <= 0 OR X >= 39 THEN DX = -DX
  100 Y = Y + DY
  110 IF Y <= 0 OR Y >= 24 THEN DY = -DY
  120 GOTO 50

  Line 10  clears  the  screen,  and line 20 sets the background to light
green with a yellow border.
  The  X  and  Y  variables  in line 30 keep track of the current row and
column  position of the ball.  The DX and DY variables in line 40 are the
horizontal  and  vertical direction of the ball's movement.  When a +1 is
added to the X value,  the ball is moved to the right;  when -1 is added,
the  ball  moves to the left.  A +1 added to Y moves the ball down a row;
a -1 added to Y moves the ball up a row.
  Line 50  puts  the  ball  on the screen at the current cursor position.
Line 60  is the familiar delay loop,  leaving the ball on the screen just
long enough to see it.
  Line 70 erases the ball by putting a space (code 32) where the ball was
on the screen.
  Line 80  adds  the  direction factor to X.  Line 90 tests to see if the
ball  has  reached  one  of  the  side walls,  reversing the direction if
there's  a  bounce.  Line  100  and 110 do the same thing for the top and
bottom walls.
  Line 120 sends the program back to display and moves the ball again.
  By changing the code in line 50 from 81 to another character code,  you
can change the ball to any other character.  If you change DX and DY to 0
the ball will bounce straight instead of diagonally.
  We  can also add a little more intelligence.  So far the only thing you
checked  for  is the X and Y values getting out of bounds for the screen.
Add the following lines to the program:

   21 FOR L = 1 TO 10
   25 POKE 1024 + INT(RND(1)*1000), 166   <------------------ Screen Code
   27 NEXT L
   85 IF PEEK(1024 + X + 40 * Y) = 166 THEN DX = -DX : GOTO 80
  105 IF PEEK(1024 + X + 40 * Y) = 166 THEN DY = -DY : GOTO 100

  Lines  21  to 27 put 10 blocks on the screen in random positions. Lines
85  and  105  check  (PEEK)  to see if the ball is about to bounce into a
block, and changes the ball's direction if so.



6. SPRITE GRAPHICS


6.1. Introduction to Sprites

  In previous chapters dealing with graphics, we saw that graphic symbols
could be used in PRINT statements  to create animation  and add chartlike
appearances to our display.
  A way was also shown  to POKE character codes in specific screen memory
locations.  This  would then place the appropriate characters directly on
the screen in the right spot.
  Creating  animation  in both these cases requires a lot of work because
objects must be created from existing graphic symbols.  Moving the object
requires  a  number of program statements to keep track of the object and
move  it  to  new spot.  And,  because of the limitation of using graphic
symbols,  the  shape and resolution of the object might not be as good as
required.
  Using sprites in animated sequences eliminates a lot of these problems.
A  sprite  is a high-resolution programmable object that can be made into
just about any shape -- through BASIC commands.  The object can be easily
moved  around  the screen by simply telling the computer the position the
sprite should be moved to. The computer takes care of the rest.
  And  sprites  have  much more power than just that.  Their color can be
changed;  you  can tell if one object collides with another;  they can be
made  to go in front and behind another;  and they can be easily expanded
in size, just for starters.
  The  penalty for all this is minimal.  However,  using sprites requires
knowing  some  more  details  about how the Commodore 64 operates and how
numbers  are  handled  within  the computer.  It's not as difficult as it
sounds,  though.  Just follow the examples  and you'll be making your own
sprites do amazing things in no time.


6.2. Sprite Creation

  Sprites are controlled by a separate picture-maker in the Commodore 64.
This  picture maker handles the video display.  It does all the hard work
of  creating  and  keeping  track  of  characters and graphics,  creating
colors, and moving around.
  This display circuit has 46 different "ON/OFF" locations which act like
internal  memory  locations.  Each  of these locations breaks down into a
series of 8 blocks. And each block can either be "ON" or "OFF". We'll get
into  more  detail  about this later.  By POKEing the appropriate decimal
value  in  the  proper  memory location you can control the formation and
movement of your sprite creations.
  In  addition  to accessing many of the picture making locations we will
also be using some of the Commodore 64's main memory to store information
(data) that defines the sprites. Finally, eight memory locations directly
after  the  screen memory will be used to tell the computer exactly which
memory area each sprite will get its data from.
  As   we   go   through   some  examples,   the  process  will  be  very
straightforward, and you'll get the hang of it.
  So let's get on with creating some sprite graphics.  A sprite object is
24 dots wide by 21 dots long.  Up to eight sprites can be controlled at a
time.  Sprites are displayed in a special independent 320 dot wide by 200
dot  high  area.  However,  you can use your sprite with any mode,  high-
resolution, low-resolution, text etc.
  Say you want to create a balloon and have it float around the sky.  The
balloon could be designed as in the 24 by 21 grid:


                          SERIES |SERIES |SERIES
                             1   |   2   |   3
                                 |       |
                          1       1       1
                          2631    2631    2631
                          842684218426842184268421
                         +------------------------+
                       1 |.........#######........|
                       2 |.......###########......|
                       3 |......#############.....|
                       4 |......#####...#####.....|
                       5 |.....#####.###..####....|
                       6 |.....#####.###.#####....|
                       7 |.....#####.###..####....|
                       8 |......#####...#####.....|
                       9 |......#############.....|
                   R  10 |......#############.....|
                   O  11 |......#.#########.#.....|
                   W  12 |.......#.#######.#......|
                      13 |.......#..#####..#......|
                      14 |........#..###..#.......|
                      15 |........#..###..#.......|
                      16 |.........#..#..#........|
                      17 |.........#..#..#........|
                      18 |..........#####.........|
                      19 |..........#####.........|
                      20 |..........#####.........|
                      21 |...........###..........|
                         +------------------------+
                                   1    1    2   2
                          1   5    0    5    0   4

                                   COLUMN

  The  next  step is to convert the graphic design into data the computer
can use.  Get a piece of notebook or graph paper and set up a sample grid
that  is  21 spaces down and 24 spaces across.  Across the top write 128,
64,  32,  16,  8,  4,  2,  1,  three  times (as shown) for each of the 24
squares.  Number down the left side of the grid 1-21 for each row.  Write
the  word  DATA  at  the  end  of each row. Now fill in the grid with any
design or use the balloon that we have. It's easiest to outline the shape
first and then go back and fill in the grid.
  Now  if  you  think  of  all  the  squares  you  filled in as "ON" then
substitute  a 1 for each filled square.  For the one's that aren't filled
in, they're "OFF" so put a zero.
  Starting  on  the  first  row,  you need to convert the dots into three
separate  pieces of data the computer can read.  Each set of 8 squares is
equal to one piece of data called a byte in our balloon. Working from the
left,  the first 8 squares are blank, or 0,  so the value for that series
of numbers is 0.
  The  middle series looks like this  (again a 1 indicates a dot,  0 is a
space):

              128    64    32    16    8     4     2     1
            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
            |  0  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |
            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
               ^     ^     ^     ^     ^     ^     ^     ^
               |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
               0  +  64 +  32 +  16 +  8  +  4  +  2  +  1  =  127


  The  third  series  on  the first row also contains blanks, so it, too,
equals zero. Thus, the data for the first line is:

                             DATA 0, 127, 0

  The series that make up row two are calculated like this:

            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Series 1: |  0  |  0  |  0  |  0  |  0  |  0  |  0  |  1  |
            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
                                                         1  =  1

            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Series 2: |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |  1  |
            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
               ^     ^     ^     ^     ^     ^     ^     ^
               |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |
              128 +  64 +  32 +  16 +  8  +  4  +  2  +  1  =  255

            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
  Series 3: |  1  |  1  |  0  |  0  |  0  |  0  |  0  |  0  |
            +-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
               ^     ^
               |     |
              128 +  64                                     =  192

  For row 2, the data would be:

                            DATA 1, 255, 192

  In the same way, the three series that make up each remaining row would
be converted into their decimal value.  Take the time to do the remainder
of the conversion in this example.
  Now  that you have the data for your object,  how can it be put to use?
Type in the following program and see what happens.

   1 REM UP, UP, AND AWAY!
   5 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
  10 V = 53248  : REM START OF DISPLAY CHIP
  11 POKE V+21, 4  : REM ENABLE SPRITE 2
  12 POKE 2042, 13  : REM SPRITE 2 DATA FROM 13TH BLOCK
  20 FOR N = 0 TO 62  : READ Q : POKE 832+N, Q : NEXT
  30 FOR X = 0 TO 200        ^------ GETS ITS INFO. FROM DATA*
  40 POKE V+4, X  : REM UPDATE X COORDINATES
  50 POKE V+5, X  : REM UPDATE Y COORDINATES
  60 NEXT X
  70 GOTO 30
 200 DATA 0,127,0,1,255,192,3,255,224,3,231,224 <- INFO. READ IN FROM "Q"
 210 DATA 7,217,240,7,223,240,7,217,240,3,231,224
 220 DATA 3,255,224,3,255,224,2,255,160,1,127,64
 230 DATA 1,62,64,0,156,128,0,156,128,0,73,0,0,73,0
 240 DATA 0,62,0,0,62,0,0,62,0,0,28,0

  * FOR MORE DETAIL ON READ & DATA SEE CHAPTER 8.

  If  you  typed  everything  correctly,  your balloon is smoothly flying
across the sky:

  [ PICTURE OMITTED ]

  In  order  to  understand  what  happened,  first you need to know what
picture making locations control the functions you need. These locations,
called registers, could be illustrated in this manner:

  Register(s)   Description

   0            X coordinate of sprite 0
   1            Y coordinate of sprite 0
   2 - 15       Paired like 0 and 1 for sprites 1-7
  16            Most Significant Bit -- X coordinate
  21            Sprite appear: 1 = appear, 0 = disappear
  29            Expand sprite in "X" Direction
  23            Expand sprite in "Y" Direction
  39-46         Sprite 0-7 color

  In  addition  to  this  information you need to know from which 64 byte
section sprites will get their data (1 byte is used).
  This data is handled by 8 locations directly after screen memory:

        +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
        | 2040 | 2041 | 2042 | 2043 | 2044 | 2045 | 2046 | 2047 |
        +------+------+------+------+------+------+------+------+
            ^      ^      ^      ^      ^      ^      ^      ^
            |      |      |      |      |      |      |      |
     SPRITE 0      1      2      3      4      5      6      7

  Now let's outline the exact procedure to get things moving  and finally
write a program.
  There  are  only a few things necessary to actually create  and move an
object.

  1. Make the proper sprite(s) appear on the screen by POKEing into
     location 21 a 1 for the bit which turns on the sprite.
  2. Set sprite pointer (locations 2040-2047) to where sprite data should
     be read from.
  3. POKE actual data into memory.
  4. Through a loop, update X and Y coordinates to move sprite around.
  5. You can, optionally, expand the object, change colors,  or perform a
     variety  of  special  functions.  Using  location  29 to expand your
     sprite in the "X" direction and location 23 in the "Y" direction.

  There are only a few items in the program that might not be familiar
from the discussion so far.

  In line 10,
  V = 53248

sets V to the starting memory location of the video chip.  In this way we
just  increase  V by the memory number to get the actual memory location.
The register numbers are the ones given on the sprite register map.

  In line,
  POKE V+21,4

makes  sprite 2 appear by placing a 4 in what is called the sprite enable
register (21) to turn on sprite 2. Think of it like this:

                                 SPRITES

                   Decimal Values of Each Sprite Number
       128      64      32      16      8       4       2       1

                           Sprite Level Numbers
        7       6       5       4       3       2       1       0
    +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
 21 |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   1   |   0   |   0   | = 4
    +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
                                                ^
                                                |
                                 Put a 1 For The SPRITE You Want

  Each sprite level is represented in section 21 of the sprite memory and
4 happens to be sprite level 2. If you were using level 3 you would put a
1 in sprite 3 which has a value of 8. In fact, if you used both sprites 2
and  3 you would put a 1 in both 4 and 8.  You would then add the numbers
together just like you did with the DATA on your graph paper. So, turning
on sprites 2 and 3 would be represented as V+21,12.

  In line 12,
  POKE 2042,13

instructs  the computer to get the data for sprite 2 (location 2042) from
the  13th area of memory.  You know from making your sprite that it takes
up 63 sections of memory. You may not have realized it, but those numbers
you put across the top of your grid equal what is known as 3 bytes of the
computer.  In other words each collection of the following numbers,  128,
64, 32, 16, 8, 4, 2, equals 1 byte of computer memory. Therefore with the
21 rows of your grid times the 3 bytes of each row,  each sprite takes up
63 bytes of memory.

  20 FOR N = 0 TO 62 : READ Q : POKE 832+N, Q : NEXT
                            ^               ^
                            |               |
                            +---------------+------- 1 WHOLE SPRITE

  This  line  handles  the actual sprite collision.  The 63 bytes of data
that  represent  the  sprite you created are READ in through the loop and
POKEd into the 13th block of memory. This starts at location 832.

  30 FOR X = 0 TO 200
  40 POKE V+4, X  <---- SPRITE 2'S X COORDINATE
  50 POKE V+5, X  <---- SPRITE 2'S Y COORDINATE

  If  you  remember  from  school  the X coordinate represents an objects
horizontal movement across the screen and the Y coordinate represents the
sprite's vertical movement across the screen.  Therefore as the values of
X change in line 30 from 0 to 200 (one number at a time) the sprite moves
across  the  screen  DOWN and TO THE RIGHT one space for each number. The
numbers  are READ by the computer fast enough to make the movement appear
to be continuous,  instead of 1 step at a time.  If you need more details
take a look at the register map in Appendix O.
  When you get into moving multiple objects,  it would be impossible  for
one  memory  section  to  update  the  locations  of  all  eight objects.
Therefore  each  sprite  has  its own set of 2 memory sections to make it
move on the screen.
  Line 70 starts the cycle over again,  after one pass on the screen. The
remainder  of  the  program  is  the  data  for  the balloon.  Sure looks
different on the screen, doesn't it?
  Now, try adding the following line:

  25 POKE V+23, 4 : POKE V+29, 4 : REM EXPAND

and RUN the program again. The balloon has expanded to twice the original
size!  What we did was simple.  By POKEing 4 (again to indicate sprite 2)
into  memory  sections  23  and 29,  sprite 2 was expanded in the X and Y
direction.
  It's  important  to  note that the sprite will start in the upper left-
hand corner of the object.  When expanding an object in either direction,
the starting point remains the same.
  For some added excitement, make the following changes:

    11 POKE V+21, 12
    12 POKE 2042, 13 : POKE 2043, 13
    30 FOR X = 1 TO 190
    45 POKE V+6, X
    55 POKE V+7, 190-X

  A  second  sprite  (number 3) has been turned on by POKEing 12 into the
memory location that makes the sprite appear (V+21). The 12 turns sprites
3 and 2 on (00001100 = 12).
  The  added  lines 45 and 55 move sprite 3 around by POKEing values into
sprite 3's X and Y coordinate locations (V+6 and V+7).
  Want to fill the sky with even more action? Try making these additions:

  11 POKE V+21, 28  <-- 28 IS REALLY 4(SPRITE 2)+8(SPRITE 3)+16(SPRITE 4)
  12 POKE 2042, 13 : POKE 2043, 13 : POKE 2044, 13
  25 POKE V+23, 12 : POKE V+29, 12
  48 POKE V+8, X
  58 POKE V+9, 100

  In line 11 this time,  another sprite (4) was made to appear by POKEing
28  into  the appropriate "ON" location of the sprite memory section. Now
sprites 2-4 are on (00011100 = 28).
  Line 12 indicates  that sprite 4 will get its data from the same memory
area (13th 63 section area) as the other sprites by POKEing 2044,13.
  In line 25, sprites 2 and 3 are expanded by POKEing 12 (Sprites 2 and 3
on) into the X and Y direction expanded memory locations (V+23 and V+29).
  Line 48  moves  sprite  3 along the X axis.  Line 58 positions sprite 3
halfway  down  the screen,  at location 100.  Because this value does not
change,  like  it  did  before  with  X=0  to  200,  sprite 3  just moves
horizontally.


6.3. Additional Notes on Sprites

  Now  that  you've  experimented  with sprites,  a few more words are in
order.  First,  you can change a sprite's color to any of the standard 16
color codes (0-15) that were used to change character color. These can be
found in Chapter 5 or in Appendix G.
  For example, to change sprite 1 to light green, type:  POKE V+40,13 (be
sure to set V = 53248).
  You  may  have  noticed  in  using the example sprite programs that the
object never moved to the right-hand edge of the screen. This was because
the screen is 320 dots wide  and the X direction register can only hold a
value up to 255. How then can you get an object to move across the entire
screen?
  There is a location on the memory map  that has not been mentioned yet.
Location 16  (of the map)  controls something called the Most Significant
Bit  (MSB) of the sprite's X direction location.  In effect,  this allows
you to move the sprite to a horizontal spot between 256 and 320.
  The MSB of X register works like this:  after the sprite has been moved
to X location 255, place a value into memory location 16 representing the
sprite  you  want  to  move.  For  example,  to  get  sprite 2 to move to
horizontal  locations  256-320,  POKE the value for sprite 2 (which is 4)
into memory location 16:

  POKE V+16, 4

  Now  start  from 0 again in the usual X direction register for sprite 2
(which is in location 4 of the map). Since you are only moving another 64
spaces, X locations would only range between 0 and 63 this time.
  This  whole  concept is best illustrated with a version of the original
BALLOON SPRITE program:

  10 V = 53248 : POKE V+21, 4 : POKE 2042, 13
  20 FOR N = 0 TO 62 : READ Q : POKE 832+N, Q : NEXT
  25 POKE V+5, 100
  30 FOR X = 0 TO 255
  40 POKE V+4, X
  50 NEXT
  60 POKE V+16, 4
  70 FOR X = 0 TO 63
  80 POKE V+4, X
  90 NEXT
 100 POKE V+16, 0
 110 GOTO 30
 200 DATA 0,127,0,1,255,192,3,255,224,3,231,224
 210 DATA 7,217,240,7,223,240,7,217,240,3,231,224
 220 DATA 3,255,224,3,255,224,2,255,160,1,127,64
 230 DATA 1,62,64,0,156,128,0,156,128,0,73,0,0,73,0
 240 DATA 0,62,0,0,62,0,0,62,0,0,28,0

  Line 60  sets  the  most  significant bit for sprite 2.  Line 70 starts
moving the standard X direction location, moving sprite 2 the rest of way
across the screen.
  Line 100 is important because it "TURNS OFF" the MSB so that the sprite
can start moving from the left edge of the screen again.
  To  define  multiple  sprites,  you  may need additional blocks for the
sprite  data.  You  can  use some of BASIC's RAM by moving BASIC.  Before
typing or loading your program type:

  POKE 44, 16 : POKE 16*256, 0 : NEW

  Now, you can use blocks 32 through 41 (locations 2048 through 4095) to
store sprite data.


6.4. Binary Arithmetic

  It  is  beyond the scope of this introductory manual to go into details
of how the computer handles numbers. We will, however, provide you with a
good   base  for  understanding  the  process  and  get  you  started  on
sophisticated animation.
  But, before you get too involved we have to define a few terms:

  BIT -- This is the smallest amount of information a computer can store.
         Think of a BIT as a switch that is either "ON" or "OFF".  When a
         BIT  is  "ON" it has a value of 1;  when a BIT is "OFF" it has a
         value of 0.

After a BIT, the next level is BYTE.

  BYTE -- This is defined as a series of BITs. Since a BYTE is made up of
          8  BITs,  you  can  actually  have  a  total  of  256 different
          combinations  of  BITs.  In other words,  you can have all BITs
          "OFF" so your BYTE will look like this:

          128      64      32      16      8       4       2       1
       +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
       |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |
       +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

          and its value will be 0. All BITs "ON" is:

          128      64      32      16      8       4       2       1
       +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
       |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |
       +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

          which is 128+64+32+16+8+4+2+1=255.

The next step up is called a REGISTER.

  REGISTER -- Defined as a block of BYTEs strung together.  But,  in this
              case each REGISTER is really only 1 BYTE long.  A series of
              REGISTERs makes up a REGISTER MAP. REGISTER MAPS are charts
              like  the  one  you  looked at to make your BALLOON SPRITE.
              Each  REGISTER controls a different function,  like turning
              on  the SPRITE is really called the SPRITE ENABLE REGISTER.
              Making  the  SPRITE longer is the SPRITE EXPAND X REGISTER,
              while  making  the  SPRITE  wider  is  the  SPRITE EXPAND Y
              REGISTER.  Keep  in  mind  that  a  REGISTER is a BYTE that
              performs a specific task.

Now let's move on to the rest of BINARY ARITHMETIC.

                      BINARY TO DECIMAL CONVERSION

+-----------------------------------------------------------------------+
|                             Decimal Value                             |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|  128  |   64  |   32  |   16  |   8   |   4   |   2   |   1   |       |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   1   |  2^0  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   1   |   0   |  2^1  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   1   |   0   |   0   |  2^2  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   1   |   0   |   0   |   0   |  2^3  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   0   |   0   |   0   |   1   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |  2^4  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   0   |   0   |   1   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |  2^5  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   0   |   1   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |  2^6  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
|   1   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |   0   |  2^7  |
+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

  Using combinations of all eight bits,  you can obtain any decimal value
from 0 to 255.  Do you start to see  why when we POKEd character or color
values  into  memory  locations  the values had to be in the 0-255 range?
Each memory location can hold a byte of information.
  Any  possible combination of eight 0's and 1's will convert to a unique
decimal value between 0-255.  If all places contain a 1 then the value of
the byte equals 255. All zeros equal a byte value zero; "00000011" equals
3,  and  so on.  This will be the basis for creating data that represents
sprites and manipulating them. As just one example, if this byte grouping
represented part of a sprite (0 is a space, 1 is a colored area):

        7       6       5       4       3       2       1       0
       2       2       2       2       2       2       2       2
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |   1   |
   +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
      128  +   64  +   32  +   16  +   8   +   4   +   2   +   1   =  255

  Then we would POKE 255 into the appropriate memory location to
represent that part of the object.

  TIP:  To save you the trouble of converting binary numbers into decimal
values  --  we'll need to do that a lot --  the following program will do
the  work  for  you.  It's  a good idea to enter and save the program for
future use.

   5 REM BINARY TO DECIMAL CONVERTER
  10 INPUT "ENTER 8-BIT BINARY NUMBER :";A$
  12 IF LEN(A$) <> 8 THEN PRINT "8 BITS PLEASE..." : GOTO 10
  15 TL = 0 : C = 0
  20 FOR X = 8 TO 1 STEP -1 : C = C + 1
  30 TL = TL + VAL(MID$(A$,C,1))*2^(X-1)
  40 NEXT X
  50 PRINT A$; " BINARY = "; TL ;" DECIMAL"
  60 GOTO 10

  This program  takes your binary number,  which was entered as a string,
and looks at each character of the string,  from left to right  (the MID$
function).  The  variable  C  indicates  what character to work on as the
program goes through the loop.
  The  VAL  function,  in  line  30,  returns  the  actual  value  of the
character. Since we are dealing with numeric characters, the value is the
same  as  the character.  For example,  if the first character of A$ is 1
then the value would also be 1.
  The final part of line 30 multiplies the value of the current character
by  the proper power of 2.  Since the first value is in the 2^7 place, in
the  example,  TL  would first equal 1 times 128 or 128.  If the bit is 0
then the value for that place would also be zero.
  This  process is repeated for all eight characters as TL keeps track of
the running total decimal value of the binary number.



7. CREATING SOUND


7.1. Using Sound if You're Not a Computer Programmer

  Most programmers use computer sound for two purposes:  making music and
generating  sound  effects.  Before  getting  into  the  "intricacies" of
programming sound, let's take a quick look at how a typical sound program
is structured  ...  and give you a short sound program you can experiment
with.


7.2. Structure of a Sound Program

  To begin with,  there are five settings  which you should know in order
to generate sound on your COMMODORE 64:  VOLUME,  ATTACK/DECAY,  SUSTAIN/
RELEASE  (ADSR),  WAVEFORM CONTROL and HIGH FREQUENCY/LOW FREQUENCY.  The
first  three  settings  are  usually  set  ONCE  at the beginning of your
program.  The  high  and low frequency settings must be set for EACH NOTE
you play. The waveform control starts and stops each note.


7.3. Sample Sound Program

  Before you start you have to choose a VOICE.  There are 3 voices.  Each
voice requires different sound setting numbers for Waveform, etc. You can
play  1, 2 or 3  voices together but our sample uses only VOICE NUMBER 1.
Type  in  this program line by line  ...  be sure to hit the <RETURN> key
after each line:

  5 FORL=54272TO54296:POKEL,0:NEXT First clear sound chip.
 10 POKE 54296,15  <-------------- Set VOLUME at highest setting.
 20 POKE 54277,190 <-------------- Set  ATTACK/DECAY  rates to define how
                                   fast  a  note  rises to and falls from
                                   its peak volume level (0 to 255).
 30 POKE 54278,248 <-------------- Set SUSTAIN/RELEASE to define level to
                                   prolong note and rate to release it.
 40 POKE 54273,17 : POKE 54272,37  Find  the not/tone you want to play in
                                   the TABLE OF MUSICAL NOTES in Appendix
                                   M  and  enter  the  HIGH-FREQUENCY and
                                   LOW-FREQUENCY  values  for  that  note
                                   (each note requires 2 POKEs).
 50 POKE 54276,17  <-------------- Start  WAVEFORM with one of 4 standard
                                   settings (17, 33, 65 or 129).
 60 FOR T = 1 TO 250 : NEXT  <---- Enter a time loop  to set the DURATION
                                   of  the  note  to be played (a quarter
                                   note  is  approx. "250"  but  may vary
                                   since  a longer program can effect the
                                   timing).
 70 POKE 54276,16  <-------------- Turn off note.

  To hear the note you just created,  type the word RUN  and then hit the
<RETURN> key. To view the program type the word LIST and hit <RETURN>. To
change it, retype the lines you want to alter.


7.4. Making Music on Your Commodore 64

  You  don't  have to be a musician to make a music on your COMMODORE 64!
All  you  need  to know are a few simple numbers which tell your computer
how loud to set the volume,  which notes to play,  how long to play them,
etc. But first ... here's a program which gives you a quick demonstration
of  the  COMMODORE 64's incredible music capabilities,  using only ONE of
your computer's 3 separate voices.
  Type the word NEW and hit <RETURN> to erase your previous program, then
enter this program, type the word RUN and hit the <RETURN> key.

   5 REM MUSICAL SCALE  <---------- Title of program.
   7 FORL=54272TO54296:POKEL,0:NEXT Clear sound chip.
  10 POKE 54296,15  <-------------- Sets volume at highest setting (15).
  20 POKE 54277,9  <--------------- Sets Attack/Decay level (each note).
  30 POKE 54276,17  <-------------- Determines waveform (type of sound).
  40 FOR T = 1 TO 300 : NEXT  <---- Duration (how long) each note plays.
  50 READ A  <--------------------- Reads first number in line 110 DATA.
  60 READ B  <--------------------- Reads second number in line 110 DATA.
  70 IF B = -1 THEN END  <--------- ENDs when it READs -1 in line 900.
  80 POKE 54273, A : POKE 54272, B  POKEs  the  first number from DATA in
                                    line  110  (A=17)  as  HIGH FREQUENCY
                                    and  second  number   (B=37)  as  LOW
                                    FREQUENCY.  Next  time  program loops
                                    around it READs A as 19  and B as 63,
                                    and  so  on,  and POKEs these numbers
                                    into   the  HIGH  and  LOW  FREQUENCY
                                    locations.  The  number  54273 = HIGH
                                    FREQUENCY for VOICE 1 and 54272 = LOW
                                    FREQUENCY for VOICE 1.
  85 POKE 54276, 17  <------------- Start note.
  90 FORT=1TO250:NEXT:POKE54276,16  Let it play then stop note.
  95 FOR T = 1 TO 50 : NEXT  <----- Time for release.
 100 GOTO 20  <-------------------- Loops back to reset CONTROL  and play
                                    new note.
 110 DATA 17,37,19,63,21,154,22,227 Musical  note  values from note value
 120 DATA25,177,28,214,32,94,34,175 chart  in  Appendix M.  Each  pair of
                                    numbers  represents  one  note.   For
                                    example,  17 and 37  represent "C" of
                                    the 4th octave,  19 and 63  represent
                                    "D" and so on.
 900 DATA -1,-1  <----------------- When program reaches -1  it turns off
                                    HIGH/LOW FREQUENCY settings  and ENDs
                                    as instructed in line 70.

  To change the sound to a "harpsichord", change line 85 to read 54276,33
and line 90 to read FOR T=1 TO 250:NEXT:POKE 54276,32 and RUN the program
again.  (To change the line,  hit the <RUN/STOP> key to stop the program,
type word LIST and hit <RETURN>, then retype the program line you want to
change; the new line will automatically replace the old one). What we did
here  is change the "waveform" from a "triangular" shaped sound wave to a
"sawtooth"  wave.  Changing the WAVEFORM can drastically change the sound
produced by the COMMODORE 64  ... but ... waveform is only one of several
settings  you  can  change  to  make  different  musical  tones and sound
effects!  You can also change the ATTACK/DECAY rate of each note  ... for
example, to change from a "harpsichord" sound to a more "banjo" sound try
changing lines 20 and 30 to read:

  20 POKE 54277,3
  30 POKE 54278,0  <--------------- Sets no sustain for banjo effect.

  As  you've  just  seen,  you  can  make  your  COMMODORE 64  sound like
different musical instruments. Let's take a closer look at how each sound
setting works.


7.5. Important Sound Settings

  1. VOLUME.  --  To  turn on the volume and set it to the highest level,
type:  POKE 54296,15.  The  volume setting ranges from 0 to 15 but you'll
use 15 most of the time. To turn "off" the volume, type:

   POKE 54296,0

   You only have to set the volume ONCE at the beginning of your program,
since  the same setting activates all three of the Commodore 64's VOICES.
(Changing  the  volume  during a musical note or sound effect can produce
interesting results but is beyond the scope of this introduction.)

  2. ADSR  and  WAVEFORM  CONTROL  SETTINGS.  --  You've already seen how
changing  the  waveform  can  change the sound effect from "xylophone" to
"harpsichord". Each VOICE has its own WAVEFORM CONTROL SETTING which lets
you define four different types of waveforms:  Triangle,  Sawtooth, Pulse
(Square)  and  Noise.  The CONTROL also activates the COMMODORE 64's ADSR
feature, but we'll come back to this in a moment. A sample waveform start
setting looks like this:

  POKE 54276,17

where the first number (54276) represents the control setting for VOICE 1
and  the  second  number  (17)  represents  the  start  for  a triangular
waveform.  The settings for each VOICE and WAVEFORM combination are shown
in the table below.

                   ADSR AND WAVEFORM CONTROL SETTINGS

              CONTROL               Note Start/Stop Numbers
              REGISTER   TRIANGLE     SAWTOOTH     PULSE       NOISE
 +-----------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
 |  VOICE 1  |  54276  |   17/16   |   33/32   |   65/64   |  129/128  |
 +-----------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
 |  VOICE 2  |  54283  |   17/16   |   33/32   |   65/64   |  129/128  |
 +-----------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+
 |  VOICE 3  |  54290  |   17/16   |   33/32   |   65/64   |  129/128  |
 +-----------+---------+-----------+-----------+-----------+-----------+

  Although  the  control  registers  are  different  for  each  voice the
waveform settings are the same for each type of waveform. To see how this
works,  look  at  lines  85 and 90 in the musical scale program.  In this
program,  immediately after setting the frequency in line 80,  we set the
CONTROL SETTING for VOICE 1 in line 85  by POKEing 54276,17.  This turned
on  the  CONTROL  for  VOICE 1 and set it to a TRIANGLE WAVEFORM (17). In
line  70  we  POKE 54276,16,  stopping  the note.  Later,  we changed the
waveform  start  setting  from 17 to 33 to create a SAWTOOTH WAVEFORM and
this gave the scale a "harpsichord" effect.  See  how the CONTROL SETTING
and  WAVEFORM  interact?  Setting  the waveform is similar to setting the
volume,  except  each  voice  has its own stetting and instead of POKEing
volume  levels  we're  defining  waveforms.  Next,  we'll look at another
aspect of sound ... the ADSR feature.

  3. ATTACK/DECAY SETTING.  --  As we mentioned before,  the ADSR CONTROL
SETTING not only defines the waveform but it also activates the ADSR,  or
ATTACK/DECAY/SUSTAIN/RELEASE feature of the COMMODORE 64.  We'll begin by
looking  at  the  ATTACK/DECAY  setting.  The  following  chart shows the
various  ATTACK  and DECAY levels for each voice.  If you're not familiar
with the concepts of sound attack and decay,  you might think of "attack"
as the rate at which a note/sound arises to its MAXIMUM VOLUME. The DECAY
is  the  rate at which the note/sound falls from its highest volume level
back  to  the  SUSTAIN level.  The following chart shows the ATTACK/DECAY
setting  for  each  voice,  and  the  numbers  for  each attack and decay
setting.  Note  that YOU MUST COMBINE ATTACK AND DECAY SETTINGS BY ADDING
THEN UP AND ENTERING THE TOTAL.  For  example,  you can set a HIGH ATTACK
rate  and  a  LOW DECAY rate by adding the high attack number (64) to the
low  decay  number (1).  The total (65) will tell the computer to set the
high  attack  rate  and  low decay rate. You can also increase the attack
rates by adding them together (128+64+32+16=MAX. ATTACK RATE of 240).

                       ATTACK/DECAY RATE SETTINGS

    ATTACK/DECAY     HIGH  MEDIUM  LOW   LOWEST  HIGH MEDIUM LOW  LOWEST
   CONTROL  SETTING ATTACK ATTACK ATTACK ATTACK DECAY DECAY DECAY DECAY
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | VOICE 1 | 54277 |  128 |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | VOICE 2 | 54284 |  128 |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | VOICE 3 | 54291 |  128 |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  If  you  set  an attack rate with no decay,  the decay is automatically
zero, and vice-versa.  For example, if you POKE 54277,64 you set a medium
attack rate with zero decay for VOICE 1.  If you POKE 54277, 66 you set a
medium  attack  rate  and a low decay rate (because 66=64+2 and sets BOTH
settings).  You  can also add up several attack values,  or several decay
values.  For  example,  you can add a low attack (32) and a medium attack
(64)  for a combined attack rate of 96,  then add a medium decay of 4 and
... presto ... POKE 54277,100.
  At this point, a sample program will better illustrate the effect. Type
the word NEW, hit <RETURN> and type in this program and RUN it:

   5 FOR L=54272 TO 54296:POKE L,0:NEXT  Clear sound chip.
  10 PRINT "HIT ANY KEY"  <------------- Screen message
  20 POKE 54296,15  <------------------- Set VOLUME at highest level.
  30 POKE 54277,64  <------------------- Set Attack/Decay.
  50 POKE 54273,17 : POKE 54272,37  <--- POKE one note into VOICE 1.
  60 GET K$ : IF K$ = "" THEN 60  <----- Check the keyboard.
  70 POKE 54276,17: FOR T=1 TO 200: NEXT Set waveform control (triangle).
  80 POKE 54276,16: FOR T=1 TO 50: NEXT  Turn off settings.
  90 GOTO 20  <------------------------- Loop back and do it again.

  Here,  we're  using  VOICE 1  to create one note at a time  ...  with a
MEDIUM ATTACK RATE  and  ZERO DECAY.  The  key  is  line 30.  POKEing the
ATTACK/DECAY  setting  with the number 64 activates a MEDIUM attack rate.
The  result  sounds like someone bouncing a ball in an oil drum.  Now for
the fun part.  Hit the <RUN/STOP> key to stop the program,  then type the
word LIST and hit <RETURN>.  Now type this line and hit <RETURN> (the new
line 30 automatically replaces the old line 30):

  30 POKE 54277,190

  Type  word  RUN  and hit <RETURN> to see how it sounds. What we've done
here is combine several attack and decay settings. The settings are: HIGH
ATTACK  (128)  +  LOW ATTACK (32) + LOWEST ATTACK (16) + HIGH DECAY (8) +
MEDIUM DECAY (4) + LOW DECAY (2) = 190.  This  effect sounds like a sound
an  oboe  or  other  "reedy"  instrument  might  make.  If  you'd like to
experiment,  try  changing  the  waveform and attack/decay numbers in the
musical scale example to see how an "oboe" sounds.  Thus ...  you can see
that  changing  the  attack/decay  rates  can be used to create different
types of sound effects.

  4. SUSTAIN/RELEASE SETTING. --  Like Attack/Decay,  the SUSTAIN/RELEASE
setting is activated by the ADSR/WAVEFORM CONTROL.  SUSTAIN/RELEASE  lets
you "extend" (SUSTAIN) a portion of a particular sound, like the "sustain
pedal"  on  a  piano or organ which lets you prolong a note.  Any note or
sound  can  be  sustained  at  any one of 16 levels.  The SUSTAIN/RELEASE
setting  may  be  used with a FOR ... NEXT loop to determine how long the
note will be held at SUSTAIN volume before being released.  The following
chart  shows  the  numbers  you  have to POKE to reach different SUSTAIN/
RELEASE rates.

                      SUSTAIN/RELEASE RATE SETTINGS

   SUSTAIN/RELEASE   HIGH  MEDIUM  LOW   LOWEST  HIGH MEDIUM LOW  LOWEST
   CONTROL  SETTING           SUSTAIN          |        RELEASE
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | VOICE 1 | 54278 |  128 |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | VOICE 2 | 54285 |  128 |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
 | VOICE 3 | 54292 |  128 |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
 +---------+-------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+

  As  an  example,  if  you're using VOICE 1,  you can set a HIGH SUSTAIN
level by typing: POKE 54278,128 or you could combine a HIGH SUSTAIN level
with a LOW RELEASE rate by adding 128 + 2 and then POKE 54278,130. Here's
the  same  sample  program  we used in the ATTACK/DECAY section above ...
with a SUSTAIN/RELEASE feature added. Notice the difference in sounds.

   5 FOR L=54272 TO 54296:POKE L,0:NEXT  Clear sound chip.
  10 PRINT "HIT ANY KEY"  <------------- Screen message
  20 POKE 54296,15  <------------------- Set VOLUME at highest level.
  30 POKE 54277,64  <------------------- Set Attack/Decay.
  40 POKE 54278,128 <------------------- Set Sustain/Release.
  50 POKE 54273,17 : POKE 54272,37  <--- POKE one note into VOICE 1.
  60 GET K$ : IF K$ = "" THEN 60  <----- Check the keyboard.
  70 POKE 54276,17: FOR T=1 TO 200: NEXT Set waveform control (triangle).
  80 POKE 54276,16: FOR T=1 TO 50: NEXT  Turn off settings.
  90 GOTO 20  <------------------------- Loop back and do it again.

  In line 30,  we tell the computer to SUSTAIN the note at a HIGH SUSTAIN
level (128 from chart above) ... after which the tone is released in line
80.  You  can vary the duration of a note by changing the "count" in line
70.  To see the effect of using the release function try changing line 30
to POKE 54278,89 (SUSTAIN = 80, RELEASE = 9).

  5. CHOOSING VOICES AND SETTING HIGH/LOW FREQUENCY SOUND VALUES. -- Each
individual  note  on the Commodore 64 requires TWO SEPARATE POKE COMMANDS
...  one  for  HIGH FREQUENCY and one for LOW FREQUENCY. The MUSICAL NOTE
VALUE  table  in Appendix M shows you the corresponding POKEs you need to
play any note in the Commodore 64's eight octave range.  The HIGH and LOW
FREQUENCY POKE COMMANDS  are  different  for each VOICE you use  --  this
allows  you to program all 3 voices independently to create 3-voice music
or exotic sound effects.
  The  HIGH  and  LOW FREQUENCY POKE COMMANDS for each voice are shown in
the  chart  below,  which  also  contains  the NOTE VALUES for the middle
(fifth) octave.

                              SAMPLE MUSICAL NOTES - FIFTH OCTAVE
VOICE NUMBER  POKE  +--+--+---+---+--+---+---+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+
& FREQUENCY   NUMBER| C|C#| D | D#| E| F | F#| G| G#| A | A#| B | C | C#|
+-------------------+--+--+---+---+--+---+---+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|VOICE 1/HIGH|54273 |34|36| 38| 40|43| 45| 48|51| 54| 57| 61| 64| 68| 72|
|VOICE 1/LOW |54272 |75|85|126|200|52|198|127|97|111|172|126|188|149|169|
+-------------------+--+--+---+---+--+---+---+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|VOICE 2/HIGH|54280 |34|36| 38| 40|43| 45| 48|51| 54| 57| 61| 64| 68| 72|
|VOICE 2/LOW |54279 |75|85|126|200|52|198|127|97|111|172|126|188|149|169|
+-------------------+--+--+---+---+--+---+---+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+
|VOICE 3/HIGH|54287 |34|36| 38| 40|43| 45| 48|51| 54| 57| 61| 64| 68| 72|
|VOICE 3/LOW |54286 |75|85|126|200|52|198|127|97|111|172|126|188|149|169|
+-------------------+--+--+---+---+--+---+---+--+---+---+---+---+---+---+

  As you can see,  there are 2 settings for each voice,  a HIGH FREQUENCY
setting  and  a LOW FREQUENCY setting.  To play a musical note,  you must
POKE  a  value  into  the HIGH FREQUENCY location and POKE another values
into  the  LOW FREQUENCY  location.  Using  the  settings  in  our VOICE/
FREQUENCY/NOTE VALUE  table,  here's the setting that plays a C note from
the 5th octave (VOICE 1):

  POKE 54273,34 : POKE 54272,75

The same note on VOICE 2 would be:

  POKE 54280,34 : POKE 54279,75

Used in a program, it looks like this:

   5 FORL=54272TO54296:POKEL,0:NEXT  Clear sound chip.
  10 V=54296:W=54276:A=54277:  <---- Set numbers equal to letters.
     S=54278:H=54273:L=54272
  20 POKE V,15:POKE A,190:POKE S,89  POKE volume, waveform, attack/decay.
  30 POKE H,34:POKE L,75  <--------- POKE hi/lo freq. notes.
  40 POKE W,33:FOR T=1 TO 200:NEXT   Start note, let it play.
  50 POKE W,32  <------------------- Stop note.


7.6. Playing a Song on the Commodore 64

  The  following  program  can  be  used to compose or play a song (using
VOICE 1).  There are two important lessons in this program:  first,  note
how  we  abbreviate all the long control numbers in the first line of the
program ... after that, we can use the letter W for "Waveform" instead of
the number 54276.
  The second lesson concerns the way we use the DATA. This program is set
up  to  let  you  enter 3 numbers for each note:  the HIGH FREQUENCY NOTE
VALUE,  the  LOW FREQUENCY NOTE VALUE,  and the DURATION THE NOTE will be
played.
  For  this  song,  we used a duration "count" of 125 for an eighth note,
250  for  a quarter note,  375 for a dotted quarter note,  500 for a half
note  and 1000 for a whole note.  These number values can be increased or
decreased to match a particular tempo, or your own musical taste.
  To see how a song gets entered, look at line 100.  We entered 34 and 75
as  our  HIGH  and  LOW FREQUENCY  settings  to play a "C" note (from the
sample  scale  shown  previously)  and  then the number 250 for a quarter
note.  So the first note in our song is a quarter note C. The second note
is also a quarter note,  this time the note is "E"  ...  and so on to the
end of our tune.  You can enter almost any song this way,  adding as many
DATA statement lines as you need.  You can continue the note and duration
numbers  from one line to the next but each line must begin with the word
DATA.  DATA -1,-1,-1  should be the last line in your program.  This line
"ends" the song.
  Type  the  word  NEW  to  erase  your  previous program and type in the
following program, then type RUN to hear the song.

  MICHAEL ROW  THE BOAT ASHORE-1 MEASURE

   2 FOR L = 54272 TO 54296 : POKE L,0 : NEXT
   5 V=54296:W=54276:A=54277:HF=54273:LF=54272:S=54278:PH=54275:PL=54274
  10 POKE V,15 : POKE A,88 : POKE PH,15 : POKE PL,15 : POKE S,89
  20 READ H : IF H = -1 THEN END
  30 READ L
  40 READ D
  60 POKE HF,H : POKE LF,L : POKE W,65
  80 FOR T = 1 TO D : NEXT : POKE W,64
  85 FOR T = 1 TO 50 : NEXT
  90 GOTO 10
 100 DATA 34,75,250,43,52,250,51,97,375,43,52,125,51,97
 105 DATA 250,57,172,250
 110 DATA 51,97,500,0,0,125,43,52,250,51,97,250,57,172
 115 DATA 1000,51,97,500
 120 DATA -1,-1,-1


7.7. Creating Sound Effects

  Unlike  music,  sound  effects  are  more  often  tied  to  a  specific
programming "action" such as the explosion made by an astro-fighter as it
crashes through a barrier in a space game  ... or the warning buzzer in a
business  program  that  tells  the  user he's about to erase his disk by
mistake.
  You  have  a  wide  range  of  options available  if you want to create
different sound effects.  Here are 10 programming ideas  which might help
you get started experimenting with sound effects:

  1. Change the volume while a note is playing,  for example to create an
     "echo" effect.
  2. Vary between two notes rapidly to create a sound "tremor."
  3. Waveform ... try different settings for each voice.
  4. Attack/Decay  ...  to alter the rate a sound rises toward its "peak"
     volume and rate it diminishes from that peak.
  5. Sustain/Release  ...  to change sustain to volume of a sound effect,
     and rate it diminishes from that volume.
  6. Multivoice effects ... playing more than one voice at the same time,
     each voice independently controlled,  or one voice playing longer or
     shorter then another, or serving as an "echo" or response to a first
     note.
  7. Changing notes on the scale,  or changing octaves,  using the values
     in the MUSICAL NOTE VALUE table.
  8. Use  the  Square Waveform  and  different  Pulse Settings  to create
     different effects.
  9. Use the Noise Waveform to generate "white noise" for accenting tonal
     sound effects or creating explosions,  gunshots  or  footsteps.  The
     same musical notes that create music can also be used with the Noise
     Waveform to create different types of white noise.
 10. Combine  several  HIGH/LOW  frequencies  in  rapid succession across
     different octaves.
 11. Filter ... try the extra POKE setting in Appendix M.


7.8. Sample Sound Effects To Try

  The  following  programs may be added to almost any BASIC program. They
are  included  to  give  you  some  programming ideas and demonstrate the
Commodore 64's sound effect range.
  Notice  the  programming  shortcut  we're  using  in  line  10.  We can
abbreviate  those  long cumbersome sound setting numbers by defining them
as  easy-to-use  letters  (numeric variables).  Line 10 simply means that
these easy to remember LETTERS can be used instead of those long numbers.
Here,  V=Volume, W=Waveform,  A=Attack/Decay, H=High Frequency (VOICE 1),
and  L=Low Frequency  (VOICE 1).  We  then  use  these letters instead of
numbers in our program ... making our program shorter, typing faster, and
the sound settings easier to remember and spot.

DOLL CRYING

  10 V=54296 : W=54276 : A=54277 : H=54273 : L=54272
  20 POKE V,15 : POKE W,65 : POKE A,15
  30 FOR X = 200 TO 5 STEP -2 : POKE H,40 : POKE L,X : NEXT
  40 FOR X = 150 TO 5 STEP -2 : POKE H,40 : POKE L,X : NEXT
  50 POKE W,0

SHOOTING SOUND ... USING VOICE 1, NOISE WAVEFORM, FADING VOLUME

  10 V=54296 : W=54276 : A=54277 : H=54273 : L=54272
  20 FOR X = 15 TO 0 STEP -1 : POKE V,X : POKE W,129:
     POKE A,15 : POKE H,40 : POKE L,200 : NEXT
  30 POKE W,0 : POKE A,0



8. ADVANCED DATA HANDLING


8.1. READ and DATA

  You've  seen  how  to  assign  values  to variables directly within the
program (A = 2),  and how to assign different values while the program is
running -- through the INPUT statement.
  There are many times, though, when neither one of these ways will quite
fit  the  job  you're  trying  to do,  especially if it involves a lot of
information.
  Try this short program:

  10 READ X
  20 PRINT "X IS NOW :"; X
  30 GOTO 10
  40 DATA 1, 34, 10.5, 16, 234.56

  RUN
  X IS NOW : 1
  X IS NOW : 34
  X IS NOW : 10.5
  X IS NOW : 16
  X IS NOW : 234.56
  ?OUT OF DATA ERROR IN 10
  READY.
  _

  In  line  10,  the computer READs one value from the DATA statement and
assigns that value to X. Each time through the loop the next value in the
DATA  statement  is  read  and  that value assigned to X, and PRINTed.  A
pointer  in  the computer itself keeps track of which value is to be used
next:

          Pointer
             |
  40 DATA 1, 34, 10.5, 16, 234.56

  When all the values have been used,  and the computer executed the loop
again,  looking  for  another value,  the OUT OF DATA ERROR was displayed
because there were no more values to READ.
  It is important to follow the format of the DATA statement precisely:

  40 DATA 1, 34, 10.5, 16, 234.56
           ^                     ^
           |                     |
    Comma Separates          No Comma
       Each Item

  Data statements can contain integer numbers,  real numbers (234.5),  or
numbers  expressed  in  scientific  notation.  But  you  can't READ other
variables,  or  have  arithmetic operations in DATA lines.  This would be
incorrect:

  40 DATA A, 23/56, 2*5

  You can,  however,  use a string variable in a READ statement  and then
place string information in the DATA line. The following is acceptable:

  NEW

  10 FOR X = 1 TO 3
  15 READ A$
  20 PRINT "A$ IS NOW : "; A$
  30 NEXT
  40 DATA THIS, IS, FUN

  RUN
  A$ IS NOW : THIS
  A$ IS NOW : IS
  A$ IS NOW : FUN
  READY.

  Notice  that this time,  the READ statement was placed inside a FOR ...
NEXT  loop.  This loop was then executed to match the number of values in
the data statement.
  In  many  cases  you  will  change  the  number  of  values in the DATA
statement  each  time  the  program  is run.  A way to avoid counting the
number  of  values  and  still  avoid  an OUT OF DATA ERROR is to place a
"FLAG"  as  the  last value in the DATA line.  This would be a value that
your data would never equal, such as a negative number or a very large or
small number. When that value is READ the program will branch to the next
part.
  There  is  a  way  to  reuse  the  same  DATA  later  in the program by
RESTOREing  the data pointer to the beginning of the data list.  Add line
50 to the previous program:

  50 GOTO 10

  You  will  still  get  the  OUT OF DATA ERROR  because  as  the program
branches back to line 10  to reread the data,  the data pointer indicates
all the data has been used. Now, add:

  45 RESTORE

and  RUN  the  program again.  The data pointer has been RESTOREd and the
data can be READ continuously.


8.2. Averages

  The following program illustrates a practical use of READ and DATA,  by
reading in a set of numbers and calculating their average:

  NEW

   5 T = 0 : CT = 0
  10 READ X
  20 IF X = -1 THEN 50 : REM CHECK FOR FLAG
  25 CT = CT + 1
  30 T= T + X : REM UPDATE TOTAL
  40 GOTO 10
  50 PRINT "THERE WERE"; CT ;"VALUES READ"
  60 PRINT "TOTAL ="; T
  70 PRINT "AVERAGE ="; T/CT
  80 DATA 75, 80, 62, 91, 87, 93, 78, -1

  RUN
  THERE WERE 7 VALUES READ
  TOTAL = 566
  AVERAGE = 80.8571429

  Line 5 sets CT, the CounTer, and T, Total, equal to zero. Line 10 READs
a value and assigns the value to X. Line 20 checks to see if the value is
our flag (here a -1).  If the value READ is part of the valid DATA, CT is
incremented by 1 and X is added to the total.
  When the flag is READ, the program branches to line 50 which PRINTs the
number of values read.  Line 60 PRINTs the total, and line 70 divides the
total by the number of values to get the average.
  By  using  a  flag at the end of the DATA,  you can place any number of
values  in  DATA statements  --  which may stretch over several lines  --
without worrying about counting the number of values entered.
  Another  variation of the READ statement involves assigning information
from the same DATA line to different variables. This information can even
be  a  mixture of string data and numeric values.  You can do all this in
the following program that will READ a name,  some scores --  say bowling
-- and print the name, scores, and the average score:

  NEW

  10 READ N$, A, B, C
  20 PRINT N$;"'S SCORES WERE :"; A ;" "; B ;" "; C
  30 PRINT "AND THE AVERAGE IS :";(A+B+C)/3
  40 PRINT : GOTO 10
  50 DATA MIKE, 190, 185, 165, DICK, 225, 245, 190
  60 DATA JOHN, 155, 185, 205, PAUL, 160, 179, 187

  RUN
  MIKE'S SCORES WERE : 190   185   165
  AND THE AVERAGE IS : 180

  DICK'S SCORES WERE : 225   245   190
  AND THE AVERAGE IS : 220

  In  running  the  program,  the DATA statements were set up in the same
order  that  READ statement expected the information:  a name (a string),
then three values. In other words N$ the first time through gets the data
"MIKE",  A  in the READ corresponds to 190 in the DATA statement,  "B" to
185  and  "C" to 165.  The process is then repeated in that order for the
remainder of the information.  (DICK and his scores, JOHN and his scores,
and PAUL and his scores.)


8.3. Subscribed Variables

  In the past we've used only simple BASIC variables,  such as A, A$, and
NU to present values.  These were a single letter followed by a letter or
single digit. In any of the programs that you would write, it is doubtful
that  we would have a need for more variable names than possible with all
the combinations of letters or numbers available.  But you are limited in
the way variables are used with programs.
  Now let's introduce the concept of subscripted variables.

                               A(1)
                               ^ ^
                               | |___ Subscript
                               |_____ Variable

  This would be said: A sub 1. A subscribed variable consists of a letter
followed  by  a  subscript  enclosed within parentheses.  Please note the
difference  between  A,  A1,  and  A(1).  Each is unique.  Only A(1) is a
subscripted variable.
  Subscripted  variables,  like simple variables,  name a memory location
within  the  computer.  Think  of subscripted variables as boxes to store
information, just like simple variables:

        +------------------------+
  A(0)  |                        |
        +------------------------+
  A(1)  |                        |
        +------------------------+
  A(2)  |                        |
        +------------------------+
  A(3)  |                        |
        +------------------------+
  A(4)  |                        |
        +------------------------+

If you wrote:

  10 A(0) = 25 : A(3) = 55 : A(4) = -45.3

  Then memory would look like this:

        +------------------------+
  A(0)  | 25                     |
        +------------------------+
  A(1)  |                        |
        +------------------------+
  A(2)  |                        |
        +------------------------+
  A(3)  | 55                     |
        +------------------------+
  A(4)  | -45.3                  |
        +------------------------+

  This  group  of subscripted variables is also called an array.  In this
case, a one-dimensional array. Later on, we'll introduce multidimensional
arrays.
  Subscripts  can  also  be  more  complex to include other variables, or
computations. The following are valid subscripted variables:

  A(X)  A(X+1)  A(2+1)  A(1*3)

  The  expressions  within the parentheses are evaluated according to the
same rules for arithmetic operations in Chapter 2.
  Now  that the ground rules are in place,  how can subscripted variables
be  put to use?  One way is to store a list of numbers entered with INPUT
or READ statements.
  Let's use subscripted variables to do the averages a different way.

   5 PRINT CHR$(147)
  10 INPUT "HOW MANY NUMBERS :"; X
  20 FOR A = 1 TO X
  30 PRINT "ENTER VALUE #"; A ;: INPUT B(A)
  40 NEXT
  50 SU = 0
  60 FOR A = 1 TO X
  70 SU = SU + B(A)
  80 NEXT
  90 PRINT : PRINT "AVERAGE ="; SU/X

  RUN
  HOW MANY NUMBERS :? 5
  ENTER VALUE # 1 ? 125
  ENTER VALUE # 2 ? 167
  ENTER VALUE # 3 ? 189
  ENTER VALUE # 4 ? 167
  ENTER VALUE # 5 ? 158

  AVERAGE = 161.2

  There  might  have been an easier way to accomplish what we did in this
program, but it illustrates how subscripted variables work.  Line 10 asks
for  how  many  numbers will be entered.  This variable,  X,  acts as the
counter for the loop within  which values are entered and assigned to the
subscripted variable, B.
  Each time through the INPUT loop,  A is increased by 1  and so the next
value  entered  is  assigned  to  the  next  element in the array A.  For
example,  the  first  time  through  the  loop A = 1,  so the first value
entered is assigned to B(1). The next time through, A = 2; the next value
is assigned to B(2), and so on until all the values have been entered.
  But now a big difference comes into play. Once all the values have been
entered,  they  are  stored  in  the array,  ready to be put to work in a
variety of ways.  Before,  you kept a running total each time through the
INPUT  or  READ  loop,  but never could get back the individual pieces of
data without re-reading the information.
  In  line  50  through 80,  another loop has been designed to add up the
various elements of the array and then display the average. This separate
part  of  the  program shows that all of the values are stored and can be
accessed as needed.
  To  prove  that  all  of  the  individual  values  are  actually stored
separately in an array,  type the following immediately after running the
previous program:

  FOR A=1 TO 5 : ? B(A), : NEXT
  125        167        189        167
  158

  The  display  will show your actual values as the contents of the array
are PRINTed.


8.4. Dimension

  If you tried to enter more than 10 numbers in the previous example, you
got a BAD SUBSCRIPT ERROR.  Arrays of up to eleven elements (subscripts 0
to 10 for a one-dimensional array) may used where needed,  just as simple
variables  can  be  used  anywhere within a program.  Arrays of more than
eleven elements need to be "declared" in the dimension statement.
  Add this line to the program:

  5 DIM B(100)

  This  lets  the  computer  know  that  you  will  have a maximum of 100
elements in the array.
  The  dimension  statement may  also  be  used  with a variable,  so the
following line could replace line 5 (don't forget to eliminate line 5):

  15 DIM B(X)

  This  would  dimension  the  array with the exact number of values that
will be entered.
  Be careful, though.  Once dimensioned, an array cannot be redimensioned
in another part of the program.  You can,  however,  have multiple arrays
within the program and dimension them all on the same line, like this:

  10 DIM C(20), D(50), E(40)


8.5. Simulated Dice Roll With Arrays

  As  programs become more complex,  using subscripted variables will cut
down on the number of statements needed,  and make the program simpler to
write.
  A single subscribed variable can be used, for example, to keep track of
the number of times a particular face turns up:

  10 INPUT "HOW MANY ROLLS: "; X
  20 FOR L = 1 TO X
  30 R = INT(6*RND(1))+1
  40 F(R) = F(R) + 1
  50 NEXT L
  60 PRINT "FACE", "NUMBER OF TIMES"
  70 FOR C=1 TO 6 : PRINT C, F(C) : NEXT

  The array F,  for FACE,  will be used to keep track of how many times a
particular face turns up.  For example, every time a 2 is thrown, F(2) is
increased  by  one.  By  using  the same element of the array to hold the
actual  number on the face that is thrown,  we've eliminated the need for
five other variables (one for each face) and numerous statements to check
and see what number is thrown.
  Line 10 asks for how many rolls you want to simulate.
  Line 20 establishes the loop  to perform the random roll  and increment
the proper element of the array by one for each toss.
  After  all  of  the  required tosses are completed,  line 60 PRINTs the
heading and line 70 PRINTs the number of times each face shows up.
  A sample run might look like this:

  HOW MANY ROLLS: ? 1000
  FACE       NUMBER OF TIMES
   1          148
   2          176
   3          178
   4          166
   5          163
   6          169

  Well, at least it wasn't loaded!
  Just  as a comparison,  the following is one way of re-writing the same
program, but without using subscripted variables. Don't bother to type it
in, but do notice the additional statements necessary.

  10 INPUT "HOW MANY ROLLS: "; X
  20 FOR L = 1 TO X
  30 R = INT(6*RND(1))+1
  40 IF R = 1 THEN F1 = F1 + 1 : NEXT
  41 IF R = 2 THEN F2 = F2 + 1 : NEXT
  42 IF R = 3 THEN F3 = F3 + 1 : NEXT
  43 IF R = 4 THEN F4 = F4 + 1 : NEXT
  44 IF R = 5 THEN F5 = F5 + 1 : NEXT
  45 IF R = 6 THEN F6 = F6 + 1 : NEXT
  60 PRINT "FACE", "NUMBER OF TIMES"
  70 PRINT 1, F1
  71 PRINT 2, F2
  72 PRINT 3, F3
  73 PRINT 4, F4
  74 PRINT 5, F5
  75 PRINT 6, F6

  The program has doubled in size from 7 to 16 lines.  In larger programs
the  space  savings  from  using  subscripted variables will be even more
dramatic.


8.6. Two-Dimensional Arrays

  Earlier  in  this chapter you experimented with one-dimensional arrays.
This  type of array was visualized as a group of consecutive boxes within
memory each holding an element of the array. What would you expect a two-
dimensional array to look like?
  First, a two-dimensional array would be written like this:

                              A(4,6)
                              ^ ^ ^
                              | | |
                              | Subscripts
                              |
                          Array Name

and could be represented as a two-dimensional grid within memory:

             0       1       2       3       4       5       6
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    0    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    1    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    2    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    3    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    4    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

  The  subscripts  could be thought of as representing the row and column
within the table where the particular element of the array is stored.

                              A(3,4) = 255
                              ^   ^
                              |   |___ Column
                              |
                             Row

             0       1       2       3       4       5       6
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    0    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    1    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    2    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    3    |       |       |       |       |  255  |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+
    4    |       |       |       |       |       |       |       |
         +-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+-------+

  If we assigned the value 255 to A(3,4), then 255 could be thought of as
being placed in the 4th column of the 3rd row within the table.
  Two-dimensional  arrays  behave  according  to the same rules that were
established for one-dimensional arrays:

  They must be dimensioned:                   DIM A(20,20)
  Assignment of data:                         A(1,1) = 255
  Assign values to other variables:           AB = A(1,1)
  PRINT values:                               PRINT A(1,1)

  If  two-dimensional  arrays work like their smaller counterparts,  what
additional capabilities will the expanded arrays handle?
  Try  this:  can  you  think  of  a way using a two-dimensional array to
tabulate  the results of a questionnaire for your club that involved four
questions  and  had up to three responses for each question?  The problem
could be represented like this:

                           CLUB QUESTIONNAIRE

Q1: ARE YOU IN FAVOR OF RESOLUTION #1?

     _1-YES  _2-NO  _3-UNDECIDED

                    ... and so on.

  The array table for this problem could be represented like this:

                                         RESPONSES

                          YES               NO           UNDECIDED

                   +----------------+----------------+----------------+
  QUESTION 1       |                |                |                |
                   +----------------+----------------+----------------+
  QUESTION 2       |                |                |                |
                   +----------------+----------------+----------------+
  QUESTION 3       |                |                |                |
                   +----------------+----------------+----------------+
  QUESTION 4       |                |                |                |
                   +----------------+----------------+----------------+

  The  program  to  do  the actual tabulation for the questionnaire might
look like that:

   20 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}"
   30 FOR R = 1 TO 4
   40 PRINT "QUESTION # :"; R
   50 PRINT "1-YES  2-NO  3-UNDECIDED"
   60 PRINT "WHAT WAS THE RESPONSE : ";
   61 GET C : IF C<1 OR C>3 THEN 61
   65 PRINT C: PRINT
   70 A(R,C) = A(R,C) + 1 : REM UPDATE ELEMENT
   80 NEXT R
   85 PRINT
   90 PRINT "DO YOU WANT TO ENTER ANOTHER" : PRINT "RESPONSE (Y/N) ?";
  100 GET A$ : IF A$ = "" THEN 100
  110 IF A$ = "Y" THEN 20
  120 IF A$ <> "N" THEN 100
  130 PRINT "{CLR/HOME}" ; "THE TOTAL RESPONSES WERE:" : PRINT
  140 PRINT SPC(18); "RESPONSE"
  141 PRINT "QUESTION", "YES", "NO", "UNDECIDED"
  142 PRINT "--------   -----------------------------"
  150 FOR R = 1 TO 4
  160 PRINT R, A(R,1), A(R,2), A(R,3)
  170 NEXT R

  RUN

  QUESTION # : 1
  1-YES  2-NO  3-UNDECIDED
  WHAT WAS THE RESPONSE : 1

  DO YOU WANT TO ENTER ANOTHER
  RESPONSE (Y/N) ?

  QUESTION # : 2
  1-YES  2-NO  3-UNDECIDED
  WHAT WAS THE RESPONSE : 1

  And so on...

  THE TOTAL RESPONSES WERE:

                    RESPONSE
  QUESTION   YES       NO        UNDECIDED
  --------   -----------------------------
   1          6         1         0
   2          5         2         0
   3          7         0         0
   4          2         4         1

  This  program makes use of many of the programming techniques that have
been  presented  so far.  Even  if you don't have any need for the actual
program right now, see if you can follow how the program works.
  The  heart  of this program is a 4 by 3 two-dimensional array,  A(4,3).
The total responses for each possible answer to each question are held in
the  appropriate  element  of the array.  For the sake of simplicity,  we
don't use the first rows and column (A(0,0) to A(0,4)). Remember, though,
that those elements are always present in any array you design.
  In  practice,   if  question  one  is  answered  YES,  then  A(1,1)  is
incremented  by  one  --  row  1  for  question  1 and column 1 for a YES
response.  The rest of the questions and answers follow the same pattern.
A  NO response for question three would add one to element A(3,2), and so
on.



APPENDICES

INTRODUCTION

  Now that you've become more intimately involved with your Commodore 64,
we want you to know that our customer support does not stop here. You may
not know it, but Commodore has been in business for over 23 years. In the
1970's  we  introduced  the  first  self-contained personal computer (the
PET). We have since become the leading computer company in many countries
of  the  world.  Our  ability  to design and manufacture our own computer
chips  allows us to bring you new and better personal computers at prices
way below what you'd expect for this level of technical excellence.
  Commodore  is committed to supporting not only you,  the end user,  but
also  the  dealer you bought your computer from,  magazines which publish
how-to  articles  showing  you  new applications or techniques,  and  ...
importantly  ...  software  developers who produce programs on cartridge,
disk  ond tape for use with your computer.  We encourage you to establish
or  join  a  Commodore  "user  club"  where you can learn new techniques,
exchange  ideas and share discoveries.  We publish two separate magazines
which contain programming tips, information on new products and ideas for
computer applications. (See Appendix N).
  In North America,  Commodore provides a "Commodore Information Network"
on the CompuServe Information Service ... to access this network, all you
need  is  your  Commodore 64 computer and our low cost VICMODEM telephone
interface cartridge (or other compatible modem).
  The following APPENDICES contain charts,  tables, and other information
which  help  you  program  your Commodore 64 faster and more efficiently.
They  also include important information on the wide variety of Commodore
products you may be interested in,  and a bibliography listing of over 20
books  and  magazines  which can help you develop your programming skills
and  keep  you current on the latest information concerning your computer
and peripherals.


APPENDIX A

COMMODORE 64 ACCESSORIES AND SOFTWARE


ACCESSORIES

  The  Commodore  64  will  support  Commodore VIC 20 storage devices and
accessories  --  DATASSETTE  recorder,  disk  drive, modem, printer -- so
your system can expand to keep pace with changing needs.

  o Datassette  Recorder --  This low cost tape unit enables programs and
    data  to be stored on cassette tape, and played back at a later time.
    The datassette can also be used to play pre-written programs.

  o Disk  --   The  single  disk  unit  uses  standard  5.25-inch  floppy
    diskettes,  about the size of a 45 RPM record,  to store programs and
    data.  Disks  allow  faster  access  to  data  and hold up to 170,000
    characters of information each. Disk units are "intelligent", meaning
    they  have  their  own  microprocessor  and memory.  Disks require no
    resources from the Commodore 64, such as using part of main memory.

  o Modem -- A low-cost communication device,  the VICMODEM allows access
    to  other  computers  over ordinary telephone lines.  Users will have
    access  to the full resources of large data bases such as The Source,
    CompuServe,  and  Dow  Jones  News  Retrieval  Service (North America
    only).

  o Printer -- The VIC printer produces printed copies of programs, data,
    or  graphics.  This  30  character per second dot-matrix printer uses
    plain tractor feed paper and other inexpensive supplies.  The printer
    attaches   directly   to  the  Commodore 64  without  any  additional
    interfaces.

  o Interface Cartridges --  A number of specialized cartridges  will  be
    available for the Commodore 64 to allow various standard devices such
    as modems,  printers,  controllers, and instruments to be attached to
    the system.

  With  a  special IEEE-488 Cartridge,  the Commodore 64 will support the
full range of CBM peripherals including disk units and printers.
  Additionally,  a  Z80  cartridge  will  allow  you  to  run CP/M on the
Commodore  64,  giving  you  access  to the largest base of microcomputer
applications available.


SOFTWARE

  Several  categories  of  software will be offered for the Commodore 64,
providing  you  with  a  wide  variety  of  personal,  entertainment, and
educational applications to choose from.

Business Aids

  o An Electronic Spreadsheet package will allow you to plan budgets, and
    perform  "what if?" analysis.  And with the optional graphic program,
    meaningful graphs may be created from the spreadsheet data.

  o Financial planning, such as loan amortization, will be easily handled
    with the Financial Planning Package.

  o A number of Professional Time Management programs  will  help  manage
    appointments and work load.

  o Easy-to-use Data Base programs  will  allow  you  to  keep  track  of
    information ... mailing lists ... phone lists ... inventories ... and
    organize information in a useful form.

  o Professional Word Processing programs will turn the Commodore 64 into
    a full-featured word processor.  Typing and revising memos,  letters,
    and other text material become a breeze.

Entertainment

  o The highest quality games will be available on plug-in cartridges for
    the Commodore 64,  providing hours of enjoyment.  These programs make
    use  of  the  high  resolution graphics and full sound range possible
    with the Commodore 64.

  o Your  Commodore 64 allows you all the fun and excitement available on
    MAX  games  because  these  two  machines  have completely compatible
    cartridges.

Education

  o The  Commodore 64  is  a  tutor  that  never  tires  and always gives
    personal  attention.   Besides  access   to  much  of  the  vast  PET
    educational  programs,  additional educational languages that will be
    available  for  the  Commodore 64  include PILOT,  LOGO and other key
    advanced packages.



APPENDIX B

ADVANCED CASSETTE OPERATION

  Besides  saving  copies  of  your  programs  on  tape, the Commodore 64
can  also  store  the  values  of variables and other items of data, in a
group  called  a  FILE.  This  allows  you to store even more information
than could be held in the computer's main memory at one time.
  Statements  used  with  data  files are OPEN, CLOSE, PRINT#, INPUT# and
GET#. The system variable ST (status) is used to check for tape markers.
  In writing data to tape,  the same concepts are used as when displaying
information on the computer's screen. But instead of PRINTing information
on  the  screen,  the information is PRINTed on tape using a variation of
the PRINT command -- PRINT#.
  The following program illustrates how this works:

  10 PRINT "WRITE-TO-TAPE-PROGRAM"
  20 OPEN 1,1,1, "DATA FILE"
  30 PRINT "TYPE DATA TO BE STORED OR TYPE STOP"
  40 PRINT
  50 INPUT "DATA"; A$
  60 PRINT#1, A$
  70 IF A$ <> "STOP" THEN 40
  80 PRINT
  90 PRINT "CLOSING FILE"
 100 CLOSE 1

  The  first  thing  that  you  must do is OPEN a file (in this case DATA
FILE). Line 10 handles that.
  The program prompts for the data you want  to save on tape  in line 50.
Line 60 writes what you typed  -- held in A$  -- onto the tape.  And the
process continues.
  If you type STOP, line 100 CLOSEs the file.
  To retrieve the information, rewind the tape, and try this:

  10 PRINT "READ-TAPE-PROGRAM"
  20 OPEN 1,1,0, "DATA FILE"
  30 PRINT "FILE OPEN"
  40 PRINT
  50 INPUT#1, A$
  60 PRINT A$
  70 IF A$ <> "STOP" THEN 40
  80 PRINT
  90 PRINT "CLOSING FILE"
 100 CLOSE 1

  Again,  this  file  "DATA  FILE"  first  must be OPENed. In line 50 the
program  INPUTs  A$  from tape and also PRINTs A$ on the screen. Then the
whole  process  is  repeated  until  "STOP"  is  found,  which  ENDs  the
program.
  A  variation  of  GET-GET#  can also be used to read the data back from
tape. Replace lines 50-70 in the program above with:

  50 GET#1, A$
  60 IF A$ <> "" THEN 50
  70 PRINT A$, ASC(A$)



APPENDIX C

COMMODORE 64 BASIC


  This  manual  has  given  you  an introduction to the BASIC language --
enough  for  you  to  get a feel for computer programming and some of the
vocabulary  involved.  This  appendix  gives a complete list of the rules
(SYNTAX)   of  Commodore  64  BASIC,  along  with  concise  descriptions.
Please  experiment  with  these  commands.  Remember,  you  can't  do any
permanent  damage  to  the  computer  by just typing in programs, and the
best way to learn computing is by doing.
  This  appendix  is  divided  into  sections  according to the different
types of operations in BASIC. These include:

1. Variables  and  Operators:  describes the different type of variables,
   legal variable names, and arithmetic and logical operators.
2. Commands:  describes  the  commands used to work with programs,  edit,
   store and erase them.
3. Statements:  describes  the  BASIC program statements used in numbered
   lines of programs.
4. Functions: describes the string, numeric, and print functions.


VARIABLES

  The Commodore 64 uses three types of variables in BASIC. These are real
numeric, integer numeric, and string (alphanumeric) variables.
  Variable  names  may consist of a single letter, a letter followed by a
number, or two letters.
  An  integer  variable  is specified by using the percent (%) sign after
the  variable name.  String variable have the dollar sign ($) after their
name.

Examples

  Real Variable Names: A, A5, BZ
  Integer Variable Names: A%, A5%, BZ%
  String Variable Names: A$, A5$, BZ$

  Arrays are lists of variables with the same name,  using extra  numbers
to specify the element of the array.  Arrays are defined  using  the  DIM
statement, and may contain floating point, integer,  or string variables.
The array variable name is followed by a set of parentheses ( ) enclosing
the number of variables in the list.

  A(7), BZ%(11), A$(50), PT(20,20)

  NOTE:  There are three variable names which are reserved for use by the
Commodore 64, and may not be defined by you.  These variables are: ST, TI
and  TI$.   ST  is  a  status  variable  which  relates  to  input/output
operations.  The value of ST will change  if there is a problem loading a
program from disk or tape.
  TI and TI$ are variables which relate to the real-time clock built into
the Commodore 64. The variable TI is updated every 1/60th of a second. It
starts at 0 when the computer is turned on, and is reset only by changing
the value of TI$.
  TI$  is a string which is constantly updated by the system.  The  first
two characters contain the number of hours , the  3rd and 4th  characters
the number of minutes,  and  the 5th and 6th characters are the number of
seconds.  This  variable  can  be  given  any numeric value,  and will be
updated from that point.

  TI$ = "101530" sets the clock to 10:15 and 30 seconds AM.

  This clock is erased when the computer is turned  off,  and  starts  at
zero when the system is turned back on.


OPERATORS

  The arithmetic operators include the following signs:

  +  Addition
  -  Subtraction
  *  Multiplication
  /  Division
  ^  Raising to a power (exponentiation)

  On a line  containing  more than one operator,  there is a set order in
which operations always occur. If several operations are used together on
the  same  line,  the  computer  assigns  priorities  as follows:  First,
exponentiation. Next, multiplication and division, and last, addition and
subtraction.
  You can change the order of operations  by enclosing within parentheses
the calculation to be performed first. Operations enclosed in parentheses
will take place before other operations.
  There are also operations for equalities and inequalities:

  =  Equal To
  <  Less Than
  >  Greater Than
  <= Less Than or Equal To
  >= Greater Than or Equal To
  <> Not Equal To

  Finally, there are three logical operators:

  AND
  OR
  NOT

  These are used most  often  to  join  multiple  formulas  in  IF...THEN
statements. For example:

  IF A=B AND C=D THEN 100  (Requires both parts to be true)
  IF A=B OR  C=D THEN 100  (Allows either part to be true)


COMMANDS

CONT (Continue)

  This command is used to restart the execution of a  program  which  has
been stopped by either using the <STOP> key, a STOP statement,  or an END
statement within the program. The program will restart at the exact place
from where it left off.
  CONT will not work if you have changed or added lines  to  the  program
(or even just moved the cursor),  or if the  program  halted  due  to  an
error, or if you caused an error before trying to restart the program. In
these cases you will get a CAN'T CONTINUE ERROR.

LIST

  The  LIST  command  allows  you  to look at lines of a BASIC program in
memory.  You  can  ask  for  the  entire program to be displayed, or only
certain line numbers.

  LIST              Shows entire program
  LIST 10-          Shows only from line 10 until end
  LIST 10           Shows only line 10
  LIST -10          Shows lines from beginning until 10
  LIST 10-20        Shows line from 10 to 20, inclusive

LOAD

  This  command  is  used  to  transfer  a program from tape or disk into
memory  so  the  program  can  be  used.  If  you  just type LOAD and hit
RETURN,  the  first  program found on the cassette unit will be placed in
memory.  The  command  may  be followed by a program name enclosed within
quotes.  The  name  may  then  be  followed  by  a  comma and a number or
numeric  variable,  which  acts  as a device number to indicate where the
program is coming from.

  If  no  device  number  is  given,  the Commodore 64 assumes device #1,
which  is  the  cassette  unit.  The  other device commonly used with the
LOAD command is the disk device, which is device #8.

  LOAD              Reads in the next program on tape
  LOAD "HELLO"      Searches tape for program called HELLO,
                    and loads program, if found
  LOAD A$           Looks for program whose name is in the variable A$
  LOAD "HELLO",8    Looks for program called HELLO on the disk drive
  LOAD "*",8        Looks for first program on disk

NEW

  This  command  erases  the  entire  program in memory,  and also clears
out  any  variables  that  may  have  been  used.  Unless the program was
SAVEd, it is lost. BE CAREFUL WHEN YOU USE THIS COMMAND.
  The NEW command can also be used as a BASIC program statement. When the
program reaches this line,  the program is erased.  This is useful if you
want to leave everything neat when the program is done.

RUN

  This  command  causes  execution  of  a  program,  once  the program is
loaded  into  memory.  If  there  is  no  line  number following RUN, the
computer  will  start  with  the  lowest line number. If a line number is
designated, the program will start executing from the specified line.

  RUN               Starts program at lowest line number
  RUN 100           Starts execution at line 100
  RUN X             UNDEFINED STATEMENT ERROR. You must always specify an
                    actual line number, not a variable representation

SAVE

  This  command  will  store  the program currently in memory on cassette
or  disk.  If  you  just  type SAVE and RETURN, the program will be SAVEd
on  cassette.  The  computer  has no way of knowing if there is a program
already  on  that  tape, so be careful with your tapes or you may erase a
valuable program.
  If you type SAVE followed by a name in quotes or a string variable, the
computer  will  give  the  program  that  name,  so it can be more easily
located  and retrieved in the future.  The name may also be followed by a
device number.
  After  the  device  number,  there  can be a comma and a second number,
either  0  or  1. If the second number is 1, the Commodore 64 will put an
END-OF-TAPE  marker  after  your  program.  This signals the computer not
to  look  any  further on the tape if you were to give an additional LOAD
command.  If  you  try  to  LOAD  a program and the computer finds one of
these markers, you will get a FILE NOT FOUND ERROR.

  SAVE              Stores program to tape without name
  SAVE "HELLO"      Stores on tape with name HELLO
  SAVE A$           Stores on tape with name A$
  SAVE "HELLO",8    Stores on disk with name HELLO
  SAVE "HELLO",1,1  Stores on tape with name HELLO and follows
                    program with END-OF-TAPE marker

VERIFY

  This  command  causes  the  computer  to  check  the program on disk or
tape  against  the  one  in  memory.  This  is  proof that the program is
actually SAVEd,  in case the tape or disk is bad, or something went wrong
during  the  SAVE.  VERIFY  without anything after the command causes the
Commodore  64  to  check  the  next  program on tape, regardless of name,
against the program in memory.
  VERIFY  followed by a program name,  or a string variable,  will search
for that program and then check. Device numbers can also be included with
the verify command.

  VERIFY            Checks the next program on tape
  VERIFY "HELLO"    Searches for HELLO, checks against memory
  VERIFY "HELLO",8  Searches for HELLO on disk, then checks



STATEMENTS

CLOSE

  This  command  completes  and closes any files used by OPEN statements.
The number following CLOSE is the file number to be closed.

  CLOSE 2           Only file #2 is closed

CLR

  This command will erase any variables in memory, but leaves the program
itself intact.  This command is automatically executed when a RUN command
is given.

CMD

  CMD sends the output which normally would go to the screen (i.e., PRINT
statements,  LISTs,  but  not  POKEs  onto the screen)  to another device
instead.  This could be a printer,  or a data file on tape or disk.  This
device or file must be OPENed first.  The CMD command must be followed by
a number or numeric variable referring to the file.

  OPEN 1,4          OPENs device #4, which is the printer
  CMD 1             All normal output now goes to printer
  LIST              The program listing now goes to
                    the printer, not the screen

  To send output back to the screen, CLOSE the file with CLOSE 1.

DATA

  This  statement  is  followed  by  a  list  of items to be used by READ
statements.  Items  may  be numeric values or text strings, and items are
separated  by commas.  String items need not be inside quote marks unless
they contain space,  colon, or comma.  If two commas have nothing between
them, the value will be READ as a zero for a number, or an empty string.

  DATA 12, 14.5, "HELLO, MOM", 3.14, PART1

DEF FN

  This  command  allows you to define a complex calculation as a function
with a short name.  In the case of a long formula that is used many times
within the program, this can save time and space.
  This  function  name  will  be  FN and any legal variable name  (1 or 2
characters long).  First you must define the function using the statement
DEF  followed  by  the  function  name.  Following  the  name is a set of
parentheses enclosing a numeric variable. Then follows the actual formula
that  you want to define,  with the variable in the proper spot.  You can
then "call" the formula, substituting any number for the variable.

  10 DEF FN A(X) = 12 * ( 34.75 - X / .3 )
  20 PRINT FN A(7)                ^
                ^                 |
                |                 | 7 is inserted where
                +-----------------+ X is in the formula

DIM

  When you use more than 11 elements of an array,  you must execute a DIM
statement for the array.  Keep in mind that the whole array takes up room
in  memory,  so  don't  create  an  array  much  larger than you'll need.
To  figure  the number of variables created with DIM,  multiply the total
number of elements in each dimension of the array.

  10 DIM A$(40), B7(15), CC%(4,4,4)
             ^       ^         ^
             |       |         |
   41 elements  16 elements  125 elements

  You  can  dimension more than one array in a DIM statement. However, be
careful not to dimension an array more than once.

END

  When a program encounters an END statement, the program halts, as if it
ran out of lines. You may use CONT to restart the program.

FOR ... TO ... STEP

  This statement works with the NEXT statement to repeat a section of the
program a set number of times. The format is:

  FOR (Var. Name)=(Start of Count) TO (End of Count) STEP (Count By)

  The  loop  variable  will  be  added  to  or subtracted from during the
program.  Without any STEP specified,  STEP is assumed to be 1. The start
count and end count are the limits to the value of the loop variable.

  10 FOR L = 1 to 10 STEP .1
  20 PRINT L
  30 NEXT L

  The end of the loop value may be followed by the word STEP  and another
number or variable.  In this case, the value following STEP is added each
time instead of 1. This allows you to count backwards, or by fractions.

GET

  The  GET  statement  allows  you  to  get  data from the keyboard,  one
character at a time. When GET is executed, the character that is typed is
assigned to the variable.  If no character is typed,  then a null (empty)
character is assigned.
  GET  is  followed by a variable name,  usually a string variable.  If a
numeric  variable  was  used and a nonnumeric key depressed,  the program
would halt with an error message.  The GET statement may be placed into a
loop,  checking for  any result.  This loop will continue  until a key is
hit.

  10 GET A$: IF  A$ = ""  THEN 10

GET#

  The GET# statement is used with a previously OPENed device or file,  to
input one character at a time from that device or file.

  GET #1,A$

This would input one character from a data file.

GOSUB

  This statement is similar to GOTO,  except the computer remembers which
program line it last executed before the GOSUB. When a line with a RETURN
statement  is  encountered,  the  program  jumps  back  to  the statement
immediately following the GOSUB.  This is useful if there is a routine in
your program that occurs in several parts of the program.
Instead of typing the routine over and over, execute GOSUBs each time the
routine is needed.

  20 GOSUB 800

GOTO or GO TO

  When a statement with the GOTO command is reached,  the next line to be
executed will be the one with the line number following the word GOTO.

IF ... THEN

  IF ... THEN lets the computer analyze a situation and take two possible
courses of action,  depending on the outcome.  If the expression is true,
the  statement  following  THEN  is  executed.  This  may  be  any  BASIC
statement.
  If the expression is false, the program goes directly to the next line.
  The expression being evaluated may be a variable or formula,  in  which
case it is considered true if nonzero,  and false if zero.  In most cases,
there  is an expression involving relational operators  (=, <, >, <=, >=,
<>, AND, OR, NOT).

  10 IF X > 10 THEN END

INPUT

  The  INPUT  statement  allows  the  program  to get data from the user,
assigning  that  data  to  a  variable.  The  program  will stop, print a
question  mark  (?)  on  the screen, and wait for the user to type in the
answer and hit RETURN.
  INPUT  is  followed  by  a  variable name, or a list of variable names,
separated by commas.  A message may be placed within quote marks,  before
the  list of variable names to be INPUT.  If more than one variable is to
be INPUT, they must be separated by commas when typed.

  10 INPUT "PLEASE ENTER YOUR FIRST NAME";A$
  20 PRINT "ENTER YOUR CODE NUMBER";: INPUT B

INPUT#

  INPUT#  is  similar  to INPUT,  but takes data from a previously OPENed
file or device.

  10 INPUT#1, A

LET

  LET  is  hardly  ever  used  in programs, since it is optional, but the
statement is the heart of all BASIC programs.  The variable name which is
to  be  assigned  the  result of a calculation is on the left side of the
equal sign, and the formula in the right.

  10 LET A = 5
  20 LET D$ = "HELLO"

NEXT

  NEXT  is  always  used in conjunction with the FOR statement.  When the
program  reaches a NEXT statement,  it checks the FOR statement to see if
the limit of the loop has been reached.  If the loop is not finished, the
loop  variable  is increased by the specified STEP value.  If the loop is
finished,  execution  proceeds  with  the  statement following NEXT.
  NEXT  may  be  followed by a variable name,  or list of variable names,
separated by commas.  If there are no names listed, the last loop started
is the one being completed. If variables are given, they are completed in
order from left to right.

  10 FOR X = 1 TO 100: NEXT

ON

  This command turns the GOTO and GOSUB commands into special versions of
the IF statement. ON is followed by a formula, which is evaluated. If the
result of the calculation is one, the first line on the list is executed;
if the result is 2, the second line is executed, and so on. If the result
is 0,  negative,  or  larger  than  the  list  of numbers,  the next line
executed will be the statement following the ON statement.

  10 INPUT X
  20 ON X GOTO 10,20,30,40,50

OPEN

  Then  OPEN  statement allows the Commodore 64 to access devices such as
the cassette recorder and disk for data,  a printer,  or even the screen.
OPEN  is followed by a number (0-255),  to which all following statements
will  refer.  There is usually a second number after the first,  which is
the device number.
  The device numbers are:

  0   Screen
  1   Cassette
  4   Printer
  8   Disk

  Following the device number may be a third number, separated again by a
third number, separated again by a comma, which is the secondary address.
In the case of the cassette,  this is 0 for read,  1 for write, and 2 for
write with end-of-tape marker.
  In the case of the disk,  the number refers to the buffer,  or channel,
number.  In  the  printer,  the  secondary address controls features like
expanded printing. See the Commodore 64 Programmer's Reference Manual for
more details.

  10 OPEN 1,0           OPENs the SCREEN as a device
  20 OPEN 2,1,0,"D"     OPENs the cassette for reading,
                        file to be searched for is D
  30 OPEN 3,4           OPENs the printer
  40 OPEN 4,8,15        OPENs the data channel on the disk

  Also see: CLOSE, CMD, GET#, INPUT#, and PRINT#, system variable ST, and
Appendix B.

POKE

  POKE is always followed by two numbers, or formulas. The first location
is a memory location; the second number is a decimal value from 0 to 255,
which  will  be  placed in the memory location,  replacing any previously
stored value.

  10 POKE 53281,0
  20 S = 4096 * 13
  30 POKE S + 29, 8

PRINT

  The  PRINT  statement  is  the  first one most people learn to use, but
there  are  a  number of variations to be aware of. PRINT can be followed
by:

  Text String with quotes
  Variable names
  Functions
  Punctuation marks

  Punctuation  marks  are used to help format the data on the screen. The
comma   divides  the  screen  into  four  columns,  while  the  semicolon
suppresses  all  spacing.  Either mark can be last symbol on a line. This
results  in the next thing PRINTed acting as if it were a continuation of
the same PRINT statement.

  10 PRINT "HELLO"
  20 PRINT "HELLO", A$
  30 PRINT A + B
  40 PRINT J;
  50 PRINT A, B, C, D

  Also see: POS, SPC and TAB functions.

PRINT#

  There are a few differences between this statement and PRINT. PRINT# is
followed by a number,  which refers to the device or data file previously
OPENed.  This number is followed by a comma and a list to be printed. The
comma and semicolon have the same effect as they do in PRINT. Please note
that some devices may not work with TAB and SPC.

  100 PRINT#1, "DATA VALUES"; A%, B1, C$

READ

  READ  is  used to assign information from DATA statements to variables,
so the information may be put to use. Care must be taken to avoid READing
strings where READ is expecting a number, which will give a TYPE MISMATCH
ERROR.

REM  (Remark)

  REMark  is a note to whomever is reading a LIST of the program.  It may
explain  a section of the program,  or give additional instructions.  REM
statements  in no way affect the operation of the program,  except to add
to its length. REM may be followed by any text.

RESTORE

  When  executed  in  a  program,  the pointer to which an item in a DATA
statement will be READ next is reset to the first item in the list.  This
gives you ability to re-READ the information. RESTORE stands by itself on
a line.

RETURN

  This  statement  is  always  used  in conjunction with GOSUB.  When the
program  encounters  a  RETURN,  it  will go to the statement immediately
following the GOSUB command.  If no GOSUB was previously issued, a RETURN
WITHOUT GOSUB ERROR will occur.

STOP

  This statement will halt program execution.  The message,  BREAK IN xxx
will  be  displayed,  where  xxx is the line number containing STOP.  The
program may be restarted by using the CONT command. STOP is normally used
in debugging a program.

SYS

  SYS  is  followed  by  a  decimal  number or numeric value in the range
0-65535.  The  program  will  then  begin  executing the machine language
program  starting  at  that  memory  location. This is similar to the USR
function, but does not allow parameter passing.

WAIT

  WAIT  is  used  to  halt  the  program  until  the contents of a memory
location changes in a specific way. WAIT is followed by a memory location
(X) and up to two variables. The format is:

  WAIT X,Y,Z

  The  contents  of the memory location are first exclusive-ORed with the
third  number,  if  present,  and  then  logically  ANDed with the second
number.  If  the  result  is  zero,  the program goes back to that memory
location  and  checks  again.  When  the  result  is nonzero, the program
continues with the next statement.



NUMERIC FUNCTIONS

ABS(X)  (absolute value)

  ABS  returns  the absolute value of the number,  without its sign (+ or
-). The answer is always positive.

ATN(X)  (arctangent)

  Returns the angle, measured in radians, whose tangent is X.

COS(X)  (cosine)

  Returns  the  value of the cosine of X, where X is an angle measured in
radians.

EXP(X)

  Returns the value of the mathematical constant e (2.71827183) raised to
the power of X.

FN xx(X)

  Returns  the  value  of  the  user-defined function xx created in a DEF
FN xx(X) statement.

INT(X)

  Returns the truncated value of X, that is,  with all the decimal places
to the right of the decimal point removed. The result will always be less
than, or equal to, X. Thus, any negative numbers with decimal places will
become the integer less than their current value.

LOG(X)  (logarithm)

  Will  return  the natural log of X.  The natural log to the base e (see
EXP(X)). To convert to log base 10, simply divide by LOG(10).

PEEK(X)

  Used  to  find  out  contents  of  memory  location  X,  in  the  range
0-65535,  giving  a  result from 0-255. PEEK is often used in conjunction
with the POKE statement.

RND(X)  (random number)

  RND(X)  returns  a  random  number  in  the range 0-1. The first random
number  should  be  generated by the formula RND(-TI) to start things off
differently  every  time.  After  this,  X  should be a 1 or any positive
number.  If  X  is zero, the result will be the same random number as the
last one.
  A  negative  value  for  X  will  reseed  the generator. The use of the
same  negative  number  for  X  will  result  in  the  same  sequence  of
"random" numbers.
  The formula for generating a number between X and Y is:

  N = RND(1) * (Y-X) + X

where,
  Y is the upper limit,
  X is the lower range of numbers desired.

SGN(X)  (sign)

  This function returns the sign (positive, negative, or zero) of X.  The
result will be +1 if positive, 0 if zero, and -1 if negative.

SIN(X)  (sine)

  SIN(X) is the trigonometric sine function.  The result will be the sine
of X, where X is an angle in radians.

SQR(X)  (square root)

  This  function will return the square root of X,  where X is a positive
number or 0. If X is negative, an ILLEGAL QUANTITY ERROR results.

TAN(X)  (tangent)

  The result will be the tangent of X, where X is an angle in radians.

USR(X)

  When  this  function  is used,  the program jumps to a machine language
program  whose  starting  point  is  contained  in memory locations.  The
parameter X is passed to the machine language program,  which will return
another  value  back  to  the  BASIC  program.  Refer to the Commodore 64
Programmer's Reference Manual  for  more  details  on  this  function and
machine language programming.



STRING FUNCTIONS

ASC(X$)

  This function will return the ASCII code of the first character of X$.

CHR$(X)

  This is the opposite of ASC, and returns a string character whose ASCII
code is X.

LEFT$(X$,X)

  Returns a string containing the leftmost X characters of X$.

LEN(X$)

  Returned will be the number of characters  (including  spaces and other
symbols) in the string X$.

MID$(X$,S,X)

  This will return a string containing X characters starting from the Sth
character in X$.

RIGHT$(X$,X)

  Returns the rightmost X characters in X$.

STR$(X)

  This will return a string  which is identical to the PRINTed version of
X.

VAL(X$)

  This function converts X$ into a number, and is essentially the inverse
operation  from STR$.  The string is examined from the leftmost character
to  the  right,  for  as  many  characters  as are in recognizable number
format.

  10 X = VAL("123.456")             X = 123.456
  10 X = VAL("12A13B")              X = 12
  10 X = VAL("RIU017")              X = 0
  10 X = VAL("-1.23.45.67")         X = -1.23



OTHER FUNCTIONS

FRE(X)

  This  function  returns the number of unused bytes available in memory,
regardless  of the value of X.  Note that FRE(X) will read out n negative
numbers if the number of unused bytes is over 32K.

POS(X)

  This function returns the number of the column (0-39) at which the next
PRINT statement will begin on the screen. X may have any value and is not
used.

SPC(X)

  This is used in a PRINT statement to skip X spaces forward.

TAB(X)

  TAB is also used in a PRINT statement; the next item to be PRINTed will
be in column X.




APPENDIX D

ABBREVIATIONS FOR BASIC KEYWORDS


  As  a  time-saver  when  typing  in programs and commands, Commodore 64
BASIC  allows  the  user  to  abbreviate  most keywords. The abbreviation
for  PRINT  is  a  question  mark.  The abbreviations for other words are
made  by  typing  the  first  one or two letters of the word, followed by
the  SHIFTed  next  letter  of the word. If the abbreviations are used in
a program line, the keyword will LIST in the full form.

Com-     Abbrevi-       Looks like  | Com-     Abbrevi-       Looks like
mand     ation          this on     | mand     ation          this on
                        screen      |                         screen
------------------------------------+------------------------------------
 ABS     A <SHIFT+B>                |  NOT     N <SHIFT+O>
 AND     A <SHIFT+N>                |  ON      NONE               ON
 ASC     A <SHIFT+S>                |  OPEN    O <SHIFT+P>
 ATN     A <SHIFT+T>                |  OR      NONE               OR
 CHR$    C <SHIFT+H>                |  PEEK    P <SHIFT+E>
 CLOSE   CL <SHIFT+O>               |  POKE    P <SHIFT+O>
 CLR     C <SHIFT+L>                |  POS     NONE               POS
 CMD     C <SHIFT+M>                |  PRINT   ?                  ?
 CONT    C <SHIFT+O>                |  PRINT#  P <SHIFT+R>
 COS     NONE              COS      |  READ    R <SHIFT+E>
 DATA    D <SHIFT+A>                |  REM     NONE               REM
 DEF     D <SHIFT+E>                |  RESTORE RE <SHIFT+S>
 DIM     D <SHIFT+I>                |  RETURN  RE <SHIFT+T>
 END     E <SHIFT+N>                |  RIGHT$  R <SHIFT+I>
 EXP     E <SHIFT+X>                |  RND     R <SHIFT+N>
 FN      NONE              FN       |  RUN     R <SHIFT+U>
 FOR     F <SHIFT+O>                |  SAVE    S <SHIFT+A>
 FRE     F <SHIFT+R>                |  SGN     S <SHIFT+G>
 GET     G <SHIFT+E>                |  SIN     S <SHIFT+I>
 GET#    NONE              GET#     |  SPC(    S <SHIFT+P>
 GOSUB   GO <SHIFT+S>               |  SQR     S <SHIFT+Q>
 GOTO    G <SHIFT+O>                |  STATUS  ST                 ST
 IF      NONE              IF       |  STEP    ST <SHIFT+E>
 INPUT   NONE              INPUT    |  STOP    S <SHIFT+T>
 INPUT#  I <SHIFT+N>                |  STR$    ST <SHIFT+R>
 INT     NONE              INT      |  SYS     S <SHIFT+Y>
 LEFT$   LE <SHIFT+F>               |  TAB(    T <SHIFT+A>
 LEN     NONE              LEN      |  TAN     NONE               TAN
 LET     L <SHIFT+E>                |  THEN    T <SHIFT+H>
 LIST    L <SHIFT+I>       SAVE     |  TIME    TI                 TI
 LOAD    L <SHIFT+O>                |  TIME$   TI$                TI$
 LOG     NONE              LOG      |  USR     U <SHIFT+S>
 MID$    M <SHIFT+I>                |  VAL     V <SHIFT+A>
 NEW     NONE              NEW      |  VERIFY  V <SHIFT+E>
 NEXT    N <SHIFT+E>                |  WAIT    W <SHIFT+A>



APPENDIX E

SCREEN DISPLAY CODES


  The  following  chart  lists  all  of  the  characters  built  into the
Commodore  64  character  sets.  It  shows  which numbers should be POKED
into  screen  memory  (locations  1024-2023)  to get a desired character.
Also  shown  is  which  character corresponds to a number PEEKed from the
screen.
  Two  character  sets  are  available,  but only one set at a time. This
means  that  you  cannot  have  characters  from one set on the screen at
the  same  time  you  have  characters  from the other set displayed. The
sets   are   switched   by   holding  down  the  <SHIFT>  and  <C=>  keys
simultaneously.
  From  BASIC,  POKE  53272,21  will  switch  to upper case mode and POKE
53272,23 switches to lower case.
  Any  number  on  the  chart  may  also  be  displayed  in  REVERSE. The
reverse  character  code  may  be  obtained  by  adding 128 to the values
shown.
  If  you  want  to  display  a  solid  circle at location 1504, POKE the
code for the circle (81) into location 1504: POKE 1504,81.
  There  is  a  corresponding  memory  location  to  control the color of
each  character  displayed  on  the  screen  (locations  55296-56295). To
change  the  color  of the circle to yellow (color code 7) you would POKE
the  corresponding  memory  location (55776) with the character color:
POKE 55776,7.
  Refer  to  Appendix  G  for  the complete screen and color memory maps,
along with color codes.

SCREEN CODES

  SET 1   SET 2   POKE  |  SET 1   SET 2   POKE  |  SET 1   SET 2   POKE
------------------------+------------------------+-----------------------
    @               0   |    +              43   |            V      86
    A       a       1   |    ,              44   |            W      87
    B       b       2   |    -              45   |            X      88
    C       c       3   |    .              46   |            Y      89
    D       d       4   |    /              47   |            Z      90
    E       e       5   |    0              48   |                   91
    F       f       6   |    1              49   |                   92
    G       g       7   |    2              50   |                   93
    H       h       8   |    3              51   |                   94
    I       i       9   |    4              52   |                   95
    J       j      10   |    5              53   |  SPACE            96
    K       k      11   |    6              54   |                   97
    L       l      12   |    7              55   |                   98
    M       m      13   |    8              56   |                   99
    N       n      14   |    9              57   |                  100
    O       o      15   |    :              58   |                  101
    P       p      16   |    ;              59   |                  102
    Q       q      17   |    <              60   |                  103
    R       r      18   |    =              61   |                  104
    S       s      19   |    >              62   |                  105
    T       t      20   |    ?              63   |                  106
    U       u      21   |                   64   |                  107
    V       v      22   |            A      65   |                  108
    W       w      23   |            B      66   |                  109
    X       x      24   |            C      67   |                  110
    Y       y      25   |            D      68   |                  111
    Z       z      26   |            E      69   |                  112
    [              27   |            F      70   |                  113
  pound            28   |            G      71   |                  114
    ]              29   |            H      72   |                  115
    ^              30   |            I      73   |                  116
    <-             31   |            J      74   |                  117
  SPACE            32   |            K      75   |                  118
    !              33   |            L      76   |                  119
    "              34   |            M      77   |                  120
    #              35   |            N      78   |                  121
    $              36   |            O      79   |                  122
    %              37   |            P      80   |                  123
    &              38   |            Q      81   |                  124
    '              39   |            R      82   |                  125
    (              40   |            S      83   |                  126
    )              41   |            T      84   |                  127
    *              42   |            U      85   |
------------------------+------------------------+-----------------------

Codes from 128-255 are reversed images of codes 0-127.



APPENDIX F

ASCII AND CHR$ CODES


  This  appendix  shows  you  what  characters  will  appear if you PRINT
CHR$(X),  for  all  possible  values  of  X. It will also show the values
obtained by typing PRINT ASC("x"), where x is any character you can type.
This  is  useful in evaluating the character received in a GET statement,
converting upper/lower case,  and printing character based commands (like
switch to upper/lower case) that could not be enclosed in quotes.

+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|  PRINTS   CHR$  |  PRINTS   CHR$  |  PRINTS   CHR$  |  PRINTS   CHR$  |
+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+
|             0   |    0       48   |            96   | {black}   144   |
|             1   |    1       49   |            97   |   {up}    145   |
|             2   |    2       50   |            98   | {rvs off} 146   |
|             3   |    3       51   |            99   | {clear}   147   |
|             4   |    4       52   |           100   |  {inst}   148   |
| {white}     5   |    5       53   |           101   | {brown}   149   |
|             6   |    6       54   |           102   | {lt. red} 150   |
|             7   |    7       55   |           103   | {grey 1}  151   |
| disSHIFT+C= 8   |    8       56   |           104   | {grey 2}  152   |
| enaSHIFT+C= 9   |    9       57   |           105   | {lt.green}153   |
|            10   |    :       58   |           106   | {lt.blue} 154   |
|            11   |    ;       59   |           107   | {grey 3}  155   |
|            12   |    <       60   |           108   | {purple}  156   |
| return     13   |    =       61   |           109   | {left}    157   |
| lower case 14   |    >       62   |           110   | {yellow}  158   |
|            15   |    ?       63   |           111   |  {cyan}   159   |
|            16   |    @       64   |           112   |  SPACE    160   |
|  {down}    17   |    A       65   |           113   |           161   |
| {rvs on}   18   |    B       66   |           114   |           162   |
|  {home}    19   |    C       67   |           115   |           163   |
|  {del}     20   |    D       68   |           116   |           164   |
|            21   |    E       69   |           117   |           165   |
|            22   |    F       70   |           118   |           166   |
|            23   |    G       71   |           119   |           167   |
|            24   |    H       72   |           120   |           168   |
|            25   |    I       73   |           121   |           169   |
|            26   |    J       74   |           122   |           170   |
|            27   |    K       75   |           123   |           171   |
|  {red}     28   |    L       76   |           124   |           172   |
| {right}    29   |    M       77   |           125   |           173   |
| {green}    30   |    N       78   |           126   |           174   |
|  {blue}    31   |    O       79   |           127   |           175   |
|  SPACE     32   |    P       80   |           128   |           176   |
|    !       33   |    Q       81   | {orange}  129   |           177   |
|    "       34   |    R       82   |           130   |           178   |
|    #       35   |    S       83   |           131   |           179   |
|    $       36   |    T       84   |           132   |           180   |
|    %       37   |    U       85   |    f1     133   |           181   |
|    &       38   |    V       86   |    f3     134   |           182   |
|    '       39   |    W       87   |    f5     135   |           183   |
|    (       40   |    X       88   |    f7     136   |           184   |
|    )       41   |    Y       89   |    f2     137   |           185   |
|    *       42   |    Z       90   |    f4     138   |           186   |
|    +       43   |    [       91   |    f6     139   |           187   |
|    ,       44   |  pound     92   |    f8     140   |           188   |
|    -       45   |    ]       93   |shift+ret. 141   |           189   |
|    .       46   |    ^       94   |upper case 142   |           190   |
|    /       47   |{arrow left}95   |           143   |           191   |
+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+-----------------+

CODES 192-223 SAME AS  96-127
CODES 224-254 SAME AS 160-190
CODE 255 SAME AS 126



APPENDIX D

SCREEN AND COLOR MEMORY MAPS


  The  following  charts  list  which  memory  locations  control placing
characters  on  the  screen,  and the locations used to change individual
character colors, as well as showing character color codes.

                           SCREEN MEMORY MAP

                                 COLUMN                             1063
      0             10             20             30            39 /
     +------------------------------------------------------------/
1024 |                                                            |  0
1064 |                                                            |
1104 |                                                            |
1144 |                                                            |
1184 |                                                            |
1224 |                                                            |
1264 |                                                            |
1304 |                                                            |
1344 |                                                            |
1384 |                                                            |
1424 |                                                            | 10
1464 |                                                            |
1504 |                                                            |   ROW
1544 |                                                            |
1584 |                                                            |
1624 |                                                            |
1664 |                                                            |
1704 |                                                            |
1744 |                                                            |
1784 |                                                            |
1824 |                                                            | 20
1864 |                                                            |
1904 |                                                            |
1944 |                                                            |
1984 |                                                            | 24
     +------------------------------------------------------------\
                                                                   \
                                                                    2023

  The  actual  values  to  POKE  into a color memory location to change a
character's color are:

  0  BLACK                          8  ORANGE
  1  WHITE                          9  BROWN
  2  RED                           10  Light RED
  3  CYAN                          11  GRAY 1
  4  PURPLE                        12  GRAY 2
  5  GREEN                         13  Light GREEN
  6  BLUE                          14  Light BLUE
  7  YELLOW                        15  GRAY 3

  For  example,  to  change the color of a character located at the upper
left-hand corner of the screen to red, type: POKE 55296,2.

                            COLOR MEMORY MAP

                                 COLUMN                             55335
      0             10             20             30            39 /
     +------------------------------------------------------------/
55296|                                                            |  0
55336|                                                            |
55376|                                                            |
55416|                                                            |
55456|                                                            |
55496|                                                            |
55536|                                                            |
55576|                                                            |
55616|                                                            |
55656|                                                            |
55696|                                                            | 10
55736|                                                            |
55776|                                                            |   ROW
55816|                                                            |
55856|                                                            |
55896|                                                            |
55936|                                                            |
55976|                                                            |
56016|                                                            |
56056|                                                            |
56096|                                                            | 20
56136|                                                            |
56176|                                                            |
56216|                                                            |
56256|                                                            | 24
     +------------------------------------------------------------\
                                                                   56295



APPENDIX H

DERIVING MATHEMATICAL FUNCTIONS


  Functions  that  are  not  intrinsic  to  Commodore  64  BASIC  may  be
calculated as follows:

+-------------------------------+---------------------------------------+
|           FUNCTION            |            BASIC EQUIVALENT           |
+-------------------------------+---------------------------------------+
| SECANT                        | SEC(X)=1/COS(X)                       |
| COSECANT                      | CSC(X)=1/SIN(X)                       |
| COTANGENT                     | COT(X)=1/TAN(X)                       |
| INVERSE SINE                  | ARCSIN(X)=ATN(X/SQR(-X*X+1))          |
| INVERSE COSINE                | ARCCOS(X)=-ATN(X/SQR(-X*X+1))+{pi}/2  |
| INVERSE SECANT                | ARCSEC(X)=ATN(X/SQR(X*X-1))           |
| INVERSE COSECANT              | ARCCSC(X)=ATN(X/SQR(X*X-1))           |
|                               |   +(SGN(X)-1*{pi}/2                   |
| INVERSE COTANGENT             | ARCOT(X)=ATN(X)+{pi}/2                |
| HYPERBOLIC SINE               | SINH(X)=(EXP(X)-EXP(-X))/2            |
| HYPERBOLIC COSINE             | COSH(X)=(EXP(X)+EXP(-X))/2            |
| HYPERBOLIC TANGENT            | TANH(X)=EXP(-X)/(EXP(X)+EXP(-X))*2+1  |
| HYPERBOLIC SECANT             | SECH(X)=2/(EXP(X)+EXP(-X))            |
| HYPERBOLIC COSECANT           | CSCH(X)=2/(EXP(X)-EXP(-X))            |
| HYPERBOLIC  COTANGENT         | COTH(X)=EXP(-X)/(EXP(X)-EXP(-X))*2+1  |
| INVERSE HYPERBOLIC SINE       | ARCSINH(X)=LOG(X+SQR(X*X+1))          |
| INVERSE HYPERBOLIC COSINE     | ARCCOSH(X)=LOG(X+SQR(X*X-1))          |
| INVERSE HYPERBOLIC TANGENT    | ARCTANH(X)=LOG((1+X)/(1-X))/2         |
| INVERSE HYPERBOLIC SECANT     | ARCSECH(X)=LOG((SQR(-X*X+1)+1/X)      |
| INVERSE HYPERBOLIC COSECANT   | ARCCSCH(X)=LOG((SGN(X)*SQR(X*X+1/X)   |
| INVERSE HYPERBOLIC COTANGENT  | ARCCOTH(X)=LOG((X+1)/(X-1))/2         |
+------------------------------+----------------------------------------+



APPENDIX I

PINOUTS FOR INPUT/OUTPUT DEVICES


  This  appendix  is designed to show you what connections may be made to
the Commodore 64.

1) Game I/O                        4) Serial I/O (Disk/Printer)
2) Cartridge Slot                  5) Modulator Output
3) Audio/Video                     6) Cassette
                                   7) User Port


Control Port 1
+-----+-------------+-----------+         /---------------------\
| Pin |    Type     |   Note    |         |  1   2   3   4   5  |
+-----+-------------+-----------+         |  O   O   O   O   O  |
|  1  |    JOYA0    |           |          |                   |
|  2  |    JOYA1    |           |          |   O   O   O   O   |
|  3  |    JOYA2    |           |           |  6   7   8   9  |
|  4  |    JOYA3    |           |            \_______________/
|  5  |    POT AY   |           |
|  6  | BUTTON A/LP |           |
|  7  |     +5V     | MAX. 50mA |
|  8  |     GND     |           |
|  9  |   POT AX    |           |
+-----+-------------+-----------+

Control Port 2
+-----+-------------+-----------+
| Pin |    Type     |   Note    |
+-----+-------------+-----------+
|  1  |    JOYB0    |           |
|  2  |    JOYB1    |           |
|  3  |    JOYB2    |           |
|  4  |    JOYB3    |           |
|  5  |    POT BY   |           |
|  6  |  BUTTON B   |           |
|  7  |     +5V     | MAX. 50mA |
|  8  |     GND     |           |
|  9  |   POT BX    |           |
+-----+-------------+-----------+


Cartridge Expansion Slot
+--------+-----------+                         +--------+--------------+
|  Pin   |    Type   |                         |   Pin  |     Type     |
+--------+-----------+                         +--------+--------------+
|   12   |   BA      |                         |    1   |   GND        |
|   13   |   /DMA    |                         |    2   |   +5V        |
|   14   |   D7      |                         |    3   |   +5V        |
|   15   |   D6      |                         |    4   |   /IRQ       |
|   16   |   D5      |                         |    5   |   R/W        |
|   17   |   D4      |                         |    6   |   Dot Clock  |
|   18   |   D3      |                         |    7   |   I/O1       |
|   19   |   D2      |                         |    8   |   /GAME      |
|   20   |   D1      |                         |    9   |   /EXROM     |
|   21   |   D0      |                         |   10   |   I/O2       |
|   22   |   GND     |                         |   11   |   /ROML      |
+--------+-----------+                         +--------+--------------+

+--------+-----------+                         +--------+--------------+
|  Pin   |    Type   |                         |   Pin  |     Type     |
+--------+-----------+                         +--------+--------------+
|   N    |   A9      |                         |   A    |   GND        |
|   P    |   A8      |                         |   B    |   /ROMH      |
|   R    |   A7      |                         |   C    |   /RESET     |
|   S    |   A6      |                         |   D    |   /NMI       |
|   T    |   A5      |                         |   E    |   02         |
|   U    |   A4      |                         |   F    |   A15        |
|   V    |   A3      |                         |   H    |   A14        |
|   W    |   A2      |                         |   J    |   A13        |
|   X    |   A1      |                         |   K    |   A12        |
|   Y    |   A0      |                         |   L    |   A11        |
|   Z    |   GND     |                         |   M    |   A10        |
+--------+-----------+                         +--------+--------------+

    2 2 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1
    2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
+---@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@---+
|                                                 |
+---@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@---+
    Z Y X W V U T S R P N M L K J H F E D C B A


Audio/Video                                                ++ ++
+--------------------------+------------------+           / +-+ \
|   Pin  |      Type       |       Note       |          /       \
+--------+-----------------+------------------+         +         +
|    1   |  LUMINANCE      |                  |         |3O     O1|
|    2   |  GND            |                  |         |         |
|    3   |  AUDIO OUT      |                  |         +  O   O  +
|    4   |  VIDEO OUT      |                  |          \5  O  4/
|    5   |  AUDIO IN       |                  |           \  2  /
+--------+-----------------+------------------+            +---+


Serial I/O                                                 ++ ++
+---------------------------------------------+           / +-+ \
|   Pin  |                Type                |          /5     1\
+--------+------------------------------------+         +  O   O  +
|    1   |  SERIAL /SRQIN                     |         |    6    |
|    2   |  GND                               |         |    O    |
|    3   |  SERIAL ATN OUT                    |         |         |
|    4   |  SERIAL CLK IN/OUT                 |         +  O   O  +
|    5   |  SERIAL DATA IN/OUT                |          \4  O  2/
|    6   |  /RESET                            |           \  3  /
+--------+------------------------------------+            +---+


Cassette
+-------+-------------------------------------+
|  Pin  |                Type                 |
+-------+-------------------------------------+
|  A-1  |  GND                                |         1 2 3 4 5 6
|  B-2  |  +5V                                |     +---@-@-@-@-@-@---+
|  C-3  |  CASSETTE MOTOR                     |     |                 |
|  D-4  |  CASSETTE READ                      |     +---@-@-@-@-@-@---+
|  E-5  |  CASSETTE WRITE                     |         A B C D E F
|  F-6  |  CASSETTE SENSE                     |
+-------+-------------------------------------+


User I/O
+------+------------------+-------------------+
|  Pin |       Type       |       Note        |
+------+------------------+-------------------+
|   1  |  GND             |                   |
|   2  |  +5V             | MAX. 100 mA       |
|   3  |  /RESET          |                   |
|   4  |  CNT1            |                   |
|   5  |  SP1             |                   |
|   6  |  CNT2            |                   |
|   7  |  SP2             |                   |
|   8  |  /PC2            |                   |
|   9  |  SER. ATN OUT    |                   |
|  10  |  9 VAC           | MAX. 100 mA       |
|  11  |  9 VAC           | MAX. 100 mA       |
|  12  |  GND             |                   |
+------+------------------+-------------------+

+------+------------------+-------------------+
|  Pin |      Type        |       Note        |
+------+------------------+-------------------+
|   A  |  GND             |                   |
|   B  |  /FLAG2          |                   |
|   C  |  PB0             |                   |
|   D  |  PB1             |                   |
|   E  |  PB2             |                   |
|   F  |  PB3             |                   |
|   H  |  PB4             |                   |
|   I  |  PB5             |                   |
|   K  |  PB6             |                   |
|   L  |  PB7             |                   |
|   M  |  PA2             |                   |
|   N  |  GND             |                   |
+------+------------------+-------------------+

                     1 1 1
   1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 0 1 2
+--@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@--+
|                           |
+--@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@-@--+
   A B C D E F H J K L M N



APPENDIX J


PROGRAMS TO TRY

  We've  included  a  number  of useful programs for you to try with your
Commodore 64. These programs will prove both entertaining and useful.


start tok64 jotto.prg
 100 print "{down}jotto{space*7}jim butterfield"
 120 input "{down}want instructions";z$:if asc(z$)=78 goto 250
 130 print "{down}try to guess the mystery 5-letter word"
 140 print "{down}you must guess only legal 5-letter"
 150 print "words, too..."
 160 print "you will be told the number of matches"
 170 print "(or 'jots') of your guess."
 180 print "{down}hint: the trick is to vary slightly"
 190 print "  from one guess to the next; so that"
 200 print "  if you guess 'batch' and get 2 jots"
 210 print "  you might try 'botch' or 'chart'"
 220 print "  for the next guess..."
 250 data bxbsf,ipccz,dbdif,esfbe,pggbm
 260 data hpshf,ibudi,djwjm,kpmmz,lbzbl
 270 data sbkbi,mfwfm,njnjd,boofy,qjqfs
 280 data rvftu,sjwfs,qsftt,puufs,fwfou
 290 data xfbwf,fyupm,nvtiz,afcsb,gjaaz
 300 data uijdl,esvol,gmppe,ujhfs,gblfs
 310 data cppui,mzjoh,trvbu,hbvaf,pxjoh
 320 data uisff,tjhiu,bymft,hsvnq,bsfob
 330 data rvbsu,dsffq,cfmdi,qsftt,tqbsl
 340 data sbebs,svsbm,tnfmm,gspxo,esjgu
 400 n=50
 410 dim n$(n),z(5),y(5)
 420 for j=1 to n: read n$(j): next j
 430 t=ti
 440 t=t/1000:if t>=1 then goto 440
 450 z=rnd(-t)
 500 g=0: n$=n$(rnd(1)*n+1)
 510 print "{down}i have a five letter word:": if r>0 then 560
 520 print "guess (with legal words)"
 530 print "and i'll tell you how many"
 540 print "'jots', or matching letters,"
 550 print "you have...."
 560 g=g+1: input "your word";z$
 570 if len(z$)<>5 then print "you must guess a 5-letter word!": goto 560
 580 v=0: h=0: m=0
 590 for j=1 to 5
 600 z=asc(mid$(z$,j,1)): y=asc(mid$(n$,j,1))-1: if y=64 then y=90
 610 if z<65 or z>90 then print "that's not a word!": goto 560
 620 if z=65 or z=69 or z=73 or z=79 or z=85 or z=89 then v=v+1
 630 if z=y then m=m+1
 640 z(j)=z: y(j)=y: next j
 650 if m=5 goto 800
 660 if v=0 or v=5 then print "come on..what kind of a word is that?":\
     goto 560
 670 for j=1 to 5: y=y(j)
 680 for k=1 to 5: if y=z(k) then h=h+1:z(k)=0:goto 700
 690 next k
 700 next j
 710 print"{up}{right*19}";h;"jots"
 720 if g<30 goto 560
 730 print "i'd better tell you.. word was '";
 740 for j=1 to 5: print chr$(y(j));: next j
 750 print"'": goto 810
 800 print "you got it in only";g;"guesses."
 810 input "{down}another word";z$
 820 r=1: if asc(z$)<>78 goto 500
stop tok64

begin 644 jotto.prg
M`0@F"&0`F2`B$4I/5%1/("`@("`@($I)32!"551415)&245,1"(`50AX`(4@
M(A%704Y4($E.4U1254-424].4R([6B0ZBR#&*%HD*;(W."")(#(U,`"%"((`
MF2`B$51262!43R!'54534R!42$4@35E35$5262`U+4Q%5%1%4B!73U)$(@"Q
M"(P`F2`B$5E/52!-55-4($=515-3($].3%D@3$5'04P@-2U,151415(B`,<(
ME@"9(")73U)$4RP@5$]/+BXN(@#V"*``F2`B64]5(%=)3$P@0D4@5$],1"!4
M2$4@3E5-0D52($]&($U!5$-(15,B`!D)J@"9("(H3U(@)TI/5%,G*2!/1B!9
M3U52($=515-3+B(`1@FT`)D@(A%(24Y4.B!42$4@5%))0TL@25,@5$\@5D%2
M62!33$E'2%1,62(`=`F^`)D@(B`@1E)/32!/3D4@1U5%4U,@5$\@5$A%($Y%
M6%0[(%-/(%1(050B`*()R`"9("(@($E&(%E/52!'54534R`G0D%40T@G($%.
M1"!'150@,B!*3U13(@#-"=(`F2`B("!93U4@34E'2%0@5%)9("="3U1#2"<@
M3U(@)T-(05)4)R(`[0G<`)D@(B`@1D]2(%1(12!.15A4($=515-3+BXN(@`1
M"OH`@R!"6$)31BQ)4$-#6BQ$0D1)1BQ%4T9"12Q01T="30`U"@0!@R!(4%-(
M1BQ)0E5$22Q$2E=*32Q+4$U-6BQ,0EI"3`!9"@X!@R!30DM"22Q-1E=&32Q.
M2DY*1"Q"3T]&62Q12E%&4P!]"A@!@R!25D9452Q32E=&4RQ14T945"Q0555&
M4RQ&5T9/50"A"B(!@R!81D)71BQ&655032Q.5E1)6BQ!1D-30BQ'2D%!6@#%
M"BP!@R!524I$3"Q%4U9/3"Q'35!012Q52DA&4RQ'0DQ&4P#I"C8!@R!#4%!5
M22Q-6DI/2"Q44E9"52Q(0E9!1BQ06$I/2``-"T`!@R!525-&1BQ42DA)52Q"
M64U&5"Q(4U9.42Q"4T9/0@`Q"TH!@R!25D)352Q$4T9&42Q#1DU$22Q14T94
M5"Q444)33`!5"U0!@R!30D5"4RQ35E-"32Q43D9-32Q'4U!83RQ%4TI'50!>
M"Y`!3K(U,`!T"YH!AB!.)"A.*2Q:*#4I+%DH-2D`D`ND`8$@2K(Q(*0@3CH@
MAR!.)"A**3H@@B!*`)D+K@%4LE1)`+4+N`%4LE2M,3`P,#J+(%2QLC$@IR")
M(#0T,`#!"\(!6K*[**M4*0#:"_0!1[(P.B!.)+).)"B[*#$IK$ZJ,2D`"PS^
M`9D@(A%)($A!5D4@02!&259%($Q%5%1%4B!73U)$.B(Z((L@4K$P(*<@-38P
M`"P,"`*9(")'54534R`H5TE42"!,14=!3"!73U)$4RDB`$\,$@*9(")!3D0@
M22=,3"!414Q,(%E/52!(3U<@34%.62(`=`P<`ID@(B=*3U13)RP@3U(@34%4
M0TA)3D<@3$545$524RPB`(D,)@*9(")93U4@2$%612XN+BXB`*4,,`)'LD>J
M,3H@A2`B64]54B!73U)$(CM:)`#A##H"BR##*%HD*;.Q-2"G()D@(EE/52!-
M55-4($=515-3($$@-2U,151415(@5T]21"$B.B")(#4V,`#S#$0"5K(P.B!(
MLC`Z($VR,``!#4X"@2!*LC$@I"`U`#4-6`):LL8HRBA:)"Q*+#$I*3H@6;+&
M*,HH3B0L2BPQ*2FK,3H@BR!9LC8T(*<@6;(Y,`!G#6("BR!:LS8U(+`@6K$Y
M,""G()D@(E1(050G4R!.3U0@02!73U)$(2(Z((D@-38P`)T-;`*+(%JR-C4@
ML"!:LC8Y(+`@6K(W,R"P(%JR-SD@L"!:LC@U(+`@6K(X.2"G(%:R5JHQ`*\-
M=@*+(%JR62"G($VR3:HQ`,<-@`):*$HILEHZ(%DH2BFR63H@@B!*`-<-B@*+
M($VR-2")(#@P,``:#I0"BR!6LC`@L"!6LC4@IR"9(")#3TU%($].+BY72$%4
M($M)3D0@3T8@02!73U)$($E3(%1(050_(CH@B2`U-C``,`Z>`H$@2K(Q(*0@
M-3H@6;)9*$HI`%T.J`*!($NR,2"D(#4Z((L@6;):*$LI(*<@2+)(JC$Z6BA+
M*;(P.HD@-S`P`&4.L@*"($L`;0Z\`H(@2@"2#L8"F2*1'1T='1T='1T='1T=
M'1T='1T='2([2#LB2D]44R(`HP[0`HL@1[,S,"")(#4V,`#-#MH"F2`B22=$
M($)%5%1%4B!414Q,(%E/52XN(%=/4D0@5T%3("<B.P#L#N0"@2!*LC$@I"`U
M.B"9(,<H62A**2D[.B""($H`_`[N`IDB)R(Z((D@.#$P`"0/(`.9(")93U4@
M1T]4($E4($E.($].3%DB.T<[(D=515-315,N(@`]#RH#A2`B$4%.3U1(15(@
F5T]21"([6B0`6`\T`U*R,3H@BR#&*%HD*;.Q-S@@B2`U,#``````
`
end


start tok64 sequence.prg
 1 rem *** sequence
 2 rem
 3 rem *** from pet user group
 4 rem *** software exchange
 5 rem *** po box 371
 6 rem *** montgomeryville, pa 18936
 7 rem ***
 50 dim a$(26)
 100 z$="abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz"
 110 z1$="12345678901234567890123456"
 200 print "{clear}{down*2}enter length of string to be sequenced{down}"
 220 input "maximum length is 26 ";s%
 230 if s%<1 or s%>26 then 200
 240 s=s%
 300 for i=1 to s
 310 a$(i)=mid$(z$,i,1)
 320 next i
 400 rem randomize string
 420 for i=1 to s
 430 k=int(rnd(1)*s+1)
 440 t$=a$(i)
 450 a$(i)=a$(k)
 460 a$(k)=t$
 470 next i
 480 gosub 950
 595 t=0
 600 rem rverse substring
 605 t=t+1
 610 input "how many to reverse ";r%
 620 if r%=0 goto 900
 630 if r%>0 and r%<=s goto 650
 640 print "must be between 1 and ";s: goto 610
 650 r=int(r%/2)
 660 for i=1 to r
 670 t$=a$(i)
 680 a$(i)=a$(r%-i+1)
 690 a$(r%-i+1)=t$
 700 next i
 750 gosub 950
 800 c=1: for i=2 to s
 810 if a$(i)>a$(i+1) goto 830
 820 c=0
 830 next i
 840 if c=0 goto 600
 850 print "{down}you did it in ";t;" tries"
 900 rem check for another game
 910 input "{down}want to play again ";y$
 920 if left$(y$,1)="y" or y$="ok" or y$="1" goto 200
 930 end
 950 print
 960 print left$(z1$,s)
 970 for i=1 to s: print a$(i);: next i
 980 print "{down}"
 990 return
stop tok64

begin 644 sequence.prg
M`0@4"`$`CR`J*BH@4T51545.0T4`&@@"`(\`.`@#`(\@*BHJ($923TT@4$54
M(%5315(@1U)/55``5`@$`(\@*BHJ(%-/1E1705)%($580TA!3D=%`&D(!0"/
M("HJ*B!03R!"3U@@,S<Q`(T(!@"/("HJ*B!-3TY41T]-15)95DE,3$4L(%!!
M(#$X.3,V`)<(!P"/("HJ*@"D"#(`AB!!)"@R-BD`R`AD`%HDLB)!0D-$149'
M2$E*2TQ-3D]045)35%565UA96B(`[0AN`%HQ)+(B,3(S-#4V-S@Y,#$R,S0U
M-C<X.3`Q,C,T-38B`"`)R`"9("*3$1%%3E1%4B!,14Y'5$@@3T8@4U1224Y'
M(%1/($)%(%-%455%3D-%1!$B`$$)W`"%(")-05A)355-($Q%3D=42"!)4R`R
M-B`B.U,E`%H)Y@"+(%,ELS$@L"!3);$R-B"G(#(P,`!C"?``4[)3)0!Q"2P!
M@2!)LC$@I"!3`(4)-@%!)"A)*;+**%HD+$DL,2D`C0E``8(@20"D"9`!CR!2
M04Y$3TU)6D4@4U1224Y'`+()I`&!($FR,2"D(%,`Q`FN`4NRM2B[*#$IK%.J
M,2D`T0FX`50DLD$D*$DI`.$)P@%!)"A)*;)!)"A+*0#N"<P!020H2RFR5"0`
M]@G6`8(@20``"N`!C2`Y-3``"`I3`E2R,``?"E@"CR!25D524T4@4U5"4U12
M24Y'`"D*70)4LE2J,0!)"F("A2`B2$]7($U!3ED@5$\@4D5615)312`B.U(E
M`%H*;`*+(%(ELC`@B2`Y,#``<PIV`HL@4B6Q,""O(%(EL[)3((D@-C4P`)L*
M@`*9(")-55-4($)%($)%5%=%14X@,2!!3D0@(CM3.B")(#8Q,`"I"HH"4K*U
M*%(EK3(I`+<*E`*!($FR,2"D(%(`Q`J>`E0DLD$D*$DI`-D*J`)!)"A)*;)!
M)"A2):M)JC$I`.L*L@)!)"A2):M)JC$ILE0D`/,*O`*"($D`_0KN`HT@.34P
M`!`+(`-#LC$Z(($@2;(R(*0@4P`J"RH#BR!!)"A)*;%!)"A)JC$I((D@.#,P
M`#(+-`-#LC``.@L^`X(@20!*"T@#BR!#LC`@B2`V,#``;0M2`YD@(A%93U4@
M1$E$($E4($E.("([5#LB(%122453(@"*"X0#CR!#2$5#2R!&3U(@04Y/5$A%
M4B!'04U%`*H+C@.%("(15T%.5"!43R!03$%9($%'04E.("([620`U0N8`XL@
MR"A9)"PQ*;(B62(@L"!9)+(B3TLB(+`@622R(C$B((D@,C`P`-L+H@.``.$+
MM@.9`/`+P`.9(,@H6C$D+%,I``T,R@.!($FR,2"D(%,Z()D@020H22D[.B""
5($D`%PS4`YD@(A$B`!T,W@..````
`
end


start tok64 pianokey.prg
 90 REM piano keyboard
 100 PRINT"{CLEAR} {REVERSE ON} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} \
     {RIGHT} {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} "
 110 PRINT" {REVERSE ON} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} \
     {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} "
 120 PRINT" {REVERSE ON} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} \
     {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} {194} {RIGHT} {RIGHT} "
 130 PRINT" {REVERSE ON} {194} {194} {194} {194} {194} {194} {194} \
     {194} {194} {194} {194} {194} "
 140 PRINT" {REVERSE ON}q{194}w{194}e{194}r{194}t{194}y{194}u{194} \
     i{194}o{194}p{194}@{194}*{194}^"
 150 PRINT"{DOWN}'space' for solo or polyphonic"
 160 PRINT"{DOWN}'f1,f3,f5,f7' octave selection"
 170 PRINT"{DOWN}'f2,f4,f6,f8' waveform{DOWN}"
 180 PRINT"hang on, setting up frequency table..."
 190 S=13*4096+1024: DIM F(26): DIM K(255)
 200 FOR I=0 TO 28: POKE S+I,0: NEXT
 210 F1=7040: FOR I=1 TO 26: F(27-I)=F1*5.8+30: F1=F1/2^(1/12): NEXT
 220 K$="q2w3er5t6y7ui9o0p@-*\^"
 230 FOR I=1 TO LEN(K$): K(ASC(MID$(K$,I)))=I: NEXT
 240 PRINT "{UP}{SPACE*38}"
 250 AT=0:DE=0:SU=15:RE=9:SV=SU*16+RE:AV=AT*16+DE:WV=16:W=0:M=1:OC=4:\
     HB=256:Z=0
 260 FOR I=0 TO 2: POKE S+5+I*7,AT*16+DE: POKES+6+I*7,SU*16+RE
 270 POKE S+2+I*7,4000 AND 255: POKE S+3+I*7,4000/256: NEXT
 280 POKE S+24,15: REM+16+64:poke s+23,7
 300 GET A$:IF A$="" THEN 300
 310 FR=F(K(ASC(A$)))/M: T=V*7: CR=S+T+4: IF FR=Z THEN 500
 320 POKE S+6+T,Z: REM finish dec/sus
 325 POKE S+5+T,Z: REM finish att/rel
 330 POKE CR,8: POKE CR,0: REM fix off
 340 POKE S+T,FR-HB*INT(FR/HB): REM set lo
 350 POKE S+1+T,FR/HB: REM set hi
 360 POKE S+6+T,SV: REM set dec/sus
 365 POKE S+5+T,AV: REM set att/rel
 370 POKE CR,WV+1: FOR I=1 TO 50*AT: NEXT
 375 POKE CR,WV: REM pulse
 380 IF P=1 THEN V=V+1: IF V=3 THEN V=0
 400 GOTO 300
 500 IF A$="{F1}" THEN M=1: OC=4: GOTO 300
 510 IF A$="{F3}" THEN M=2: OC=3: GOTO 300
 520 IF A$="{F5}" THEN M=4: OC=2: GOTO 300
 530 IF A$="{F7}" THEN M=8: OC=1: GOTO 300
 540 IF A$="{F2}" THEN W=0: WV=16: GOTO 300
 550 IF A$="{F4}" THEN W=1: WV=32: GOTO 300
 560 IF A$="{F6}" THEN W=2: WV=64: GOTO300
 570 IF A$="{F8}" THEN W=3: WV=128: GOTO300
 580 IF A$=" " THEN P=1-P: GOTO 300
 590 IF A$="{CLEAR}" THEN 200
 600 GOTO 300
 800 PRINT"hit a key"
 810 GET A$: IF A$="" THEN 810: WAIT FOR A KEY
 820 PRINT A$: RETURN
stop tok64

begin 644 pianokey.prg
M`0@6"%H`CR!024%.3R!+15E"3T%21``Z"&0`F2*3(!(@'2`=(,(@'2`=(!T@
MPB`=(!T@PB`=(!T@(@!="&X`F2(@$B`=(!T@PB`=(!T@'2#"(!T@'2#"(!T@
M'2`B`(`(>`"9(B`2(!T@'2#"(!T@'2`=(,(@'2`=(,(@'2`=("(`HPB"`)DB
M(!(@PB#"(,(@PB#"(,(@PB#"(,(@PB#"(,(@(@#&"(P`F2(@$E'"5\)%PE+"
M5,)9PE7"2<)/PE#"0,(JPEXB`.T(E@"9(A$G4U!!0T4G($9/4B!33TQ/($]2
M(%!/3%E02$].24,B`!0)H`"9(A$G1C$L1C,L1C4L1C<G($]#5$%612!314Q%
M0U1)3TXB`#0)J@"9(A$G1C(L1C0L1C8L1C@G(%=!5D5&3U)-$2(`8@FT`)DB
M2$%.1R!/3BP@4T545$E.1R!54"!&4D51545.0UD@5$%"3$4N+BXB`(@)O@!3
MLC$SK#0P.3:J,3`R-#H@AB!&*#(V*3H@AB!+*#(U-2D`HPG(`($@2;(P(*0@
M,C@Z()<@4ZI)+#`Z(((`X0G2`$8QLC<P-#`Z(($@2;(Q(*0@,C8Z($8H,C>K
M22FR1C&L-2XXJC,P.B!&,;)&,:TRKB@QK3$R*3H@@@`!"MP`2R2R(E$R5S-%
M4C54-EDW54DY3S!00"TJ7%XB`"<*Y@"!($FR,2"D(,,H2R0I.B!+*,8HRBA+
M)"Q)*2DILDDZ(((`5PKP`)D@(I$@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@("`@
M("`@("`@("`@("`@("(`I@KZ`$%4LC`Z1$6R,#I35;(Q-3I21;(Y.E-6LE-5
MK#$VJE)%.D%6LD%4K#$VJD1%.E=6LC$V.E>R,#I-LC$Z3T.R-#I(0K(R-38Z
M6K(P`-L*!`&!($FR,""D(#(Z()<@4ZHUJDFL-RQ!5*PQ-JI$13H@EU.J-JI)
MK#<L4U6L,3:J4D4`"PL.`9<@4ZHRJDFL-RPT,#`P(*\@,C4U.B"7(%.J,ZI)
MK#<L-#`P,*TR-38Z(((`+@L8`9<@4ZHR-"PQ-3H@CRLQ-BLV-#I03TM%(%,K
M,C,L-P!%"RP!H2!!)#J+($$DLB(B(*<@,S`P`'D+-@%&4K)&*$LHQBA!)"DI
M*:U-.B!4LE:L-SH@0U*R4ZI4JC0Z((L@1E*R6B"G(#4P,`"9"T`!ER!3JC:J
M5"Q:.B"/($9)3DE32"!$14,O4U53`+D+10&7(%.J-:I4+%HZ((\@1DE.25-(
M($%45"]214P`UPM*`9<@0U(L.#H@ER!#4BPP.B"/($9)6"!/1D8`^@M4`9<@
M4ZI4+$92JTA"K+4H1E*M2$(I.B"/(%-%5"!,3P`6#%X!ER!3JC&J5"Q&4JU(
M0CH@CR!3150@2$D`-`QH`9<@4ZHVJE0L4U8Z((\@4T54($1%0R]355,`4@QM
M`9<@4ZHUJE0L058Z((\@4T54($%45"]214P`<@QR`9<@0U(L5U:J,3H@@2!)
MLC$@I"`U,*Q!5#H@@@"'#'<!ER!#4BQ75CH@CR!054Q310"F#'P!BR!0LC$@
MIR!6LE:J,3H@BR!6LC,@IR!6LC``L`R0`8D@,S`P`-`,]`&+($$DLB*%(B"G
M($VR,3H@3T.R-#H@B2`S,#``\`S^`8L@022R(H8B(*<@3;(R.B!/0[(S.B")
M(#,P,``0#0@"BR!!)+(BAR(@IR!-LC0Z($]#LC(Z((D@,S`P`#`-$@*+($$D
MLB*((B"G($VR.#H@3T.R,3H@B2`S,#``40T<`HL@022R(HDB(*<@5[(P.B!7
M5K(Q-CH@B2`S,#``<@TF`HL@022R(HHB(*<@5[(Q.B!75K(S,CH@B2`S,#``
MD@TP`HL@022R(HLB(*<@5[(R.B!75K(V-#H@B3,P,`"S#3H"BR!!)+(BC"(@
MIR!7LC,Z(%=6LC$R.#H@B3,P,`#/#40"BR!!)+(B("(@IR!0LC&K4#H@B2`S
M,#``X@U.`HL@022R(I,B(*<@,C`P`.P-6`*)(#,P,`#]#2`#F2)(250@02!+
M15DB`"`.*@.A($$D.B"+($$DLB(B(*<@.#$P.B"2(($@02!+15D`+`XT`YD@
(020Z((X`````
`
end



APPENDIX K


CONVERTING STANDARD
BASIC PROGRAMS TO
COMMODORE 64 BASIC

  If  you  have  programs  written in a BASIC other than Commodore BASIC,
some  minor  adjustments  may  be  necessary  before  running them on the
Commodore-64. We've included some hints to make the conversion easier.


String Dimensions

  Delete   all  statements  that  are  used  to  declare  the  length  of
strings.  A  statement  such  as  DIM  A$(I,J), which dimensions a string
array  for  J  elements of length I, should be converted to the Commodore
BASIC statement DIM A$(J).
  Some  BASICs  use  a  comma  or  an ampersand for string concatenation.
Each  of  these  must  be  changed to a plus sign, which is the Commodore
BASIC operator for string concatenation.
  In  Commodore-64  BASIC,  the  MID$,  RIGHT$,  and  LEFT$ functions are
used  to  take  substrings  of strings. Forms such as A$(I) to access the
Ith  character  in  A$,  or  A$(I,J)  to  take  a  substring  of  A$ from
position I to J, must be changed as follows:

Other BASIC     Commodore 64 BASIC

A$(I)=X$        A$=LEFT$(A$,I-1)+X$+MID$(A$,I+1)
A$(I,J)=X$      A$=LEFT$(A$,I-1)+X$+MID$(A$,J+1)

Multiple Assignments

  To set B and C equal to zero, some BASICs allow statements of the form:

10 LET B=C=0

  Commodore   64  BASIC  would  interpret  the  second  equal  sign  as a
logical  operator  and  set  B  =  -1  if  C  =  0. Instead, convert this
statement to:

10 C=0:B=0

Multiple Statements

  Some  BASICs  use  a  backslash  to  separate  multiple statements on a
line. With Commodore 64 BASIC, separate all statements by a colon (:).

MAT Functions

  Programs  using  the  MAT  functions  available  on some BASICs must be
rewritten using FOR...NEXT loops to execute properly.



APPENDIX L

ERROR MESSAGES


  This   appendix   contains  a  complete  list  of  the  error  messages
generated by the Commodore-64, with a description of causes.


BAD DATA              String data was received from an open file, but the
                      program was expecting numeric data.
BAD SUBSCRIPT         The program was trying to reference an  element  of
                      an array whose  number  is  outside  of  the  range
                      specified in the DIM statement.
BREAK                 Program execution was stopped because you  hit  the
                      <STOP> key.
CAN'T CONTINUE        The CONT command will not work,  either because the
                      program was never RUN,  there has been an error, or
                      a line has been edited.
DEVICE NOT PRESENT    The required I/O device was not  available  for  an
                      OPEN, CLOSE, CMD, PRINT#, INPUT#, or GET#.
DIVISION BY ZERO      Division by zero is a mathematical oddity  and  not
                      allowed.
EXTRA IGNORED         Too many items of data were typed in response to an
                      INPUT statement. Only the first few items were
                      accepted.
FILE NOT FOUND        If you were looking for a file on tape, and END-OF-
                      TAPE marker was found. If you were looking on disk,
                      no file with that name exists.
FILE NOT OPEN         The file specified in a CLOSE, CMD, PRINT#, INPUT#,
                      or GET#, must first be OPENed.
FILE OPEN             An attempt was made to open a file using the number
                      of an already open file.
FORMULA TOO COMPLEX   The string expression  being  evaluated  should  be
                      split into at least two parts  for  the  system  to
                      work with, or a formula has too many parentheses.
ILLEGAL DIRECT        The  INPUT  statement  can  only  be  used within a
                      program, and not in direct mode.
ILLEGAL QUANTITY      A number used as the  argument  of  a  function  or
                      statement is out of the allowable range.
LOAD                  There is a problem with the program on tape.
NEXT WITHOUT FOR      This is caused by either incorrectly nesting  loops
                      or having a variable name in a NEXT statement  that
                      doesn't correspond with one in a FOR statement.
NOT INPUT FILE        An  attempt  was  made  to INPUT or GET data from a
                      file which was specified to be for output only.
NOT OUTPUT FILE       An attempt was mode to PRINT data to a  file  which
                      was specified as input only.
OUT OF DATA           A READ statement was executed but there is no  data
                      left unREAD in a DATA statement.
OUT OF MEMORY         There is no  more  RAM  available  for  program  or
                      variables.  This  may  also occur when too many FOR
                      loops have been nested,  or when there are too many
                      GOSUBs in effect.
OVERFLOW              The result of a  computation  is  larger  than  the
                      largest number allowed, which is 1.70141884E+38.
REDIM'D ARRAY         An array may only be DIMensioned once.  If an array
                      variable  is  used  before  that array is DIM'd, an
                      automatic DIM operation is performed on that  array
                      setting the number of  elements  to  ten,  and  any
                      subsequent DIMs will cause this error.
REDO FROM START       Character   data  was  typed  in  during  an  INPUT
                      statement when numeric data was expected.  Just re-
                      type  the  entry  so  that  it is correct,  and the
                      program will continue by itself.
RETURN WITHOUT GOSUB  A RETURN statement was encountered,  and  no  GOSUB
                      command has been issued.
STRING TOO LONG       A string can contain up to 255 characters.
SYNTAX ERROR          A statement is unrecognizable by the Commodore 64.
                      A   missing   or   extra   parenthesis,  misspelled
                      keywords, etc.
TYPE MISMATCH         This error occurs when a number is used in place of
                      a string, or vice-versa.
UNDEF'D FUNCTION      A user defined function was referenced,  but it has
                      never been defined using the DEF FN statement.
UNDEF'D STATEMENT     An attempt was made to GOTO or GOSUB or RUN  a line
                      number that doesn't exist.
VERIFY                The program on tape or  disk  does  not  match  the
                      program currently in memory.
VERIFY                The  program  on  tape  or  disk does not match the
                      program currently in memory.



APPENDIX M

MUSIC NOTE VALUES


  This  appendix  contains  a  complete  list  of Note#, actual note, and
the  values  to  be  POKED into the HI FREQ and LOW FREQ registers of the
sound chip to produce the indicated note.

+-----------------------------+-----------------------------------------+
|        MUSICAL NOTE         |             OSCILLATOR FREQ             |
+-------------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
|     NOTE    |    OCTAVE     |   DECIMAL   |      HI     |     LOW     |
+-------------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+
|       0     |      C-0      |     268     |       1     |      12     |
|       1     |      C#-0     |     284     |       1     |      28     |
|       2     |      D-0      |     301     |       1     |      45     |
|       3     |      D#-0     |     318     |       1     |      62     |
|       4     |      E-0      |     337     |       1     |      81     |
|       5     |      F-0      |     358     |       1     |     102     |
|       6     |      F#-0     |     379     |       1     |     123     |
|       7     |      G-0      |     401     |       1     |     145     |
|       8     |      G#-0     |     425     |       1     |     169     |
|       9     |      A-0      |     451     |       1     |     195     |
|      10     |      A#-0     |     477     |       1     |     221     |
|      11     |      B-0      |     506     |       1     |     250     |
|      16     |      C-1      |     536     |       2     |      24     |
|      17     |      C#-1     |     568     |       2     |      56     |
|      18     |      D-1      |     602     |       2     |      90     |
|      19     |      D#-1     |     637     |       2     |     125     |
|      20     |      E-1      |     675     |       2     |     163     |
|      21     |      F-1      |     716     |       2     |     204     |
|      22     |      F#-1     |     758     |       2     |     246     |
|      23     |      G-1      |     803     |       3     |      35     |
|      24     |      G#-1     |     851     |       3     |      83     |
|      25     |      A-1      |     902     |       3     |     134     |
|      26     |      A#-1     |     955     |       3     |     187     |
|      27     |      B-1      |    1012     |       3     |     244     |
|      32     |      C-2      |    1072     |       4     |      48     |
|      33     |      C#-2     |     1136    |       4     |     112     |
|      34     |      D-2      |     1204    |       4     |     180     |
|      35     |      D#-2     |     1275    |       4     |     251     |
|      36     |      E-2      |     1351    |       5     |      71     |
|      37     |      F-2      |     1432    |       5     |     152     |
|      38     |      F#-2     |     1517    |       5     |     237     |
|      39     |      G-2      |     1607    |       6     |      71     |
|      40     |      G#-2     |     1703    |       6     |     167     |
|      41     |      A-2      |     1804    |       7     |      12     |
|      42     |      A#-2     |     1911    |       7     |     119     |
|      43     |      B-2      |     2025    |       7     |     233     |
|      48     |      C-3      |     2145    |       8     |      97     |
|      49     |      C#-3     |     2273    |       8     |     225     |
|      50     |      D-3      |     2408    |       9     |     104     |
|      51     |      D#-3     |     2551    |       9     |     247     |
|      52     |      E-3      |     2703    |      10     |     143     |
|      53     |      F-3      |     2864    |      11     |      48     |
|      54     |      F#-3     |     3034    |      11     |     218     |
|      55     |      G-3      |     3215    |      12     |     143     |
|      56     |      G#-3     |     3406    |      13     |      78     |
|      57     |      A-3      |     3608    |      14     |      24     |
|      58     |      A#-3     |     3823    |      14     |     239     |
|      59     |      B-3      |     4050    |      15     |     210     |
|      64     |      C-4      |     4291    |      16     |     195     |
|      65     |      C#-4     |     4547    |      17     |     195     |
|      66     |      D-4      |     4817    |      18     |     209     |
|      67     |      D#-4     |     5103    |      19     |     239     |
|      68     |      E-4      |     5407    |      21     |      31     |
|      69     |      F-4      |     5728    |      22     |      96     |
|      70     |      F#-4     |     6069    |      23     |     181     |
|      71     |      G-4      |     6430    |      25     |      30     |
|      72     |      G#-4     |     6812    |      26     |     156     |
|      73     |      A-4      |     7217    |      28     |      49     |
|      74     |      A#-4     |     7647    |      29     |     223     |
|      75     |      B-4      |     8101    |      31     |     165     |
|      80     |      C-5      |     8583    |      33     |     135     |
|      81     |      C#-5     |     9094    |      35     |     134     |
|      82     |      D-5      |     9634    |      37     |     162     |
|      83     |      D#-5     |    10207    |      39     |     223     |
|      84     |      E-5      |    10814    |      42     |      62     |
|      85     |      F-5      |    11457    |      44     |     193     |
|      86     |      F#-5     |    12139    |      47     |     107     |
|      87     |      G-5      |    12860    |      50     |      60     |
|      88     |      G#-5     |    13625    |      53     |      57     |
|      89     |      A-5      |    14435    |      56     |      99     |
|      90     |      A#-5     |    15294    |      59     |     190     |
|      91     |      B-5      |    16203    |      63     |      75     |
|      96     |      C-6      |    17167    |      67     |      15     |
|      97     |      C#-6     |    18188    |      71     |      12     |
|      98     |      D-6      |    19269    |      75     |      69     |
|      99     |      D#-6     |    20415    |      79     |     191     |
|     100     |      E-6      |    21629    |      84     |     125     |
|     101     |      F-6      |    22915    |      89     |     131     |
|     102     |      F#-6     |    24278    |      94     |     214     |
|     103     |      G-6      |    25721    |     100     |     121     |
|     104     |      G#-6     |    27251    |     106     |     115     |
|     105     |      A-6      |    28871    |     112     |     199     |
|     106     |      A#-6     |    30588    |     119     |     124     |
|     107     |      B-6      |    32407    |     126     |     151     |
|     112     |      C-7      |    34334    |     134     |      30     |
|     113     |      C#-7     |    36376    |     142     |      24     |
|     114     |      D-7      |    38539    |     150     |     139     |
|     115     |      D#-7     |    40830    |     159     |     126     |
|     116     |      E-7      |    43258    |     168     |     250     |
|     117     |      F-7      |    45830    |     179     |       6     |
|     118     |      F#-7     |    48556    |     189     |     172     |
|     119     |      G-7      |    51443    |     200     |     243     |
|     120     |      G#-7     |    54502    |     212     |     230     |
|     121     |      A-7      |    57743    |     225     |     143     |
|     122     |      A#-7     |    61176    |     238     |     248     |
|     123     |      B-7      |    64814    |     253     |      46     |
+-------------+---------------+-------------+-------------+-------------+

                            FILTER SETTINGS
             +------------+--------------------------------+
             |  Location  |            Contents            |
             +------------+--------------------------------+
             |    54293   |  Low cutoff frequency (0-7)    |
             |    54294   |  High cutoff frequency (0-255) |
             |    54295   |  Resonance (bits 4-7)          |
             |            |  Filter voice 3 (bit 2)        |
             |            |  Filter voice 2 (bit 1)        |
             |            |  Filter voice 1 (bit 0)        |
             |    54296   |  High pass (bit 6)             |
             |            |  Bandpass (bit 5)              |
             |            |  Low pass (bit 4)              |
             |            |  Volume (bits 0-3)             |
             +------------+--------------------------------+



APPENDIX N

BIBLIOGRAPHY


Addison-Wesley          "BASIC and the Personal Computer", Dwyer and
                        Critchfield

Compute                 "Compute's First Book of PET/CBM"

Cowbay Computing        "Feed Me, I'm Your PET Computer", Carol Alexander

                        "Looking Good with Your PET", Carol Alexander

                        "Teacher's PET-Plans, Quizzes, and Answers"

Creative Computing      "Getting Acquainted With Your VIC 20",
                        T. Hartnell

Dilithium Press         "BASIC Basic-English Dictionary for the PET",
                        Lorry Noonan

                        "PET BASIC", Tom Rugg and Phil Feldman

Faulk Baker Associates  "MOS Programming Manual", MOS Technology

Hoyden Book Co.         "BASIC From the Ground Up", David E. Simon

                        "I Speak BASIC to My PET", Aubrey Jones, Jr.

                        "Library of PET Subroutines',', Nick Hampshire

                        "PET Graphics", Nick Hampshire

                        "BASIC Conversions Handbook, Apple, TRS-80, and
                        PET", David A. Brain, Phillip R. Oviatt,
                        Paul J. Paquin, and Chandler P. Stone

Howard W. Sams          "The Howard W. Sams Crash Course in
                        Microcomputers", Louis E. Frenzel, Jr.

                        "Mostly BASIC: Applications for Your PET",
                        Howard Berenbon

                        "PET Interfacing", James M. Downey and Steven
                        M. Rogers

                        "VIC 20 Programmer's Reference Guide", A. Finkel,
                        P. Higginbottom, N. Harris, and M. Tomczyk

Little, Brown & Co.     "Computer Games for Businesses, Schools, and
                        Homes", J. Victor Nagigian, and William S. Hodges

                        "The Computer Tutor: Learning Activities for
                        Homes and Schools", Gary W. Orwig, University of
                        Central Florida, and William S. Hodges

McGraw-Hill             "Hands-On BASIC With a PET", Herbert D. Peckman

                        "Home and Office Use of VisiCalc", D. Castlewitz,
                        and L. Chisauki

Osborne/McGraw-Hill     "PET/CBM Personal Computer Guide", Carroll
                        S. Donahue

                        "PET Fun and Games", R. Jeffries and G. Fisher

                        "PET and the IEEE", A. Osborne and C. Donahue

                        "Some Common BASIC Programs for the PET",
                        L. Poole, M. Borchers, and C. Donahue

                        "Osborne CP/M User Guide", Thorn Hogan

                        "CBM Professional Computer Guide"

                        "The PET Personal Guide"

                        "The 8086 Book", Russell Rector and George Alexy

P. C. Publications      "Beginning Self-Teaching Computer Lessons"

Prentice-Hall           "The PET Personal Computer for Beginners",
                        S. Dunn and V. Morgan

Reston Publishing Co.   "PET and the IEEE 488 Bus (GPIB)", Eugene
                        Fisher and C. W. Jensen

                        "PET BASIC-Training Your PET Computer",
                        Roman Zamora, Wm. F. Carrie, and B. Allbrecht

                        "PET Games and Recreation", M. Ogelsby, L.
                        Lindsey, and D. Kunkin

                        "PET BASIC", Richard Huskell

                        "VIC Games and Recreation"

Telmas Courseware       "BASIC and the Personal Computer", T. A. Dwyer,
Ratings                 and M. Critchfield

Total Information       "Understanding Your PET/CBM, Vol. 1, BASIC
Services                Programming"

                        "Understanding Your VIC", David Schultz


  Commodore  Magazines  provide  you with the most up-to-date information
for  your  Commodore 64.  Two  of  the most popular publications that you
should seriously consider subscribing to are:

  COMMODORE -- The  Microcomputer  Magazine is published bimonthly and is
available  by  subscription  ($15.00 per year, U.S., and $25.00 per year,
worldwide).

  POWER/PLAY -- The Home Computer Magazine is, published quarterly and is
available  by subscription  ($10.00 per year,  U.S.,  and $15.00 per year
worldwide).



APPENDIX O

SPRITE REGISTER MAP


+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|Register#|     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |             |
| Dec Hex | DB7 | DB6 | DB5 | DB4 | DB3 | DB2 | DB1 | DB0 |             |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  0   0  |S0X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S0X0 |SPRITE 0 X   |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Component    |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  1   1  |S0Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S0Y0 |SPRITE 0 Y   |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Component    |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  2   2  |S1X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S1X0 |SPRITE 1 X   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  3   3  |S1Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S1Y0 |SPRITE 1 Y   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  4   4  |S2X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S2X0 |SPRITE 2 X   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  5   5  |S2Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S2Y0 |SPRITE 2 Y   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  6   6  |S3X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S3X0 |SPRITE 3 X   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  7   7  |S3Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S3Y0 |SPRITE 3 Y   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  8   8  |S4X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S4X0 |SPRITE 4 X   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|  9   9  |S4Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S4Y0 |SPRITE 4 Y   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 10   A  |S5X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S5X0 |SPRITE 5 X   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 11   B  |S5Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S5Y0 |SPRITE 5 Y   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 12   C  |S6X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S6X0 |SPRITE 6 X   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 13   D  |S6Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S6Y0 |SPRITE 6 Y   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 14   E  |S7X7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S7X0 |SPRITE 7 X   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 15   F  |S7Y7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |S7Y0 |SPRITE 7 Y   |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 16  10  |S7X8 |S6X8 |S5X8 |S4X8 |S3X8 |S2X8 |S1X8 |S0X8 |MSB of X     |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |COORD.       |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 17  11  | RC8 | ECM | BMM |BLNK |RSEL |YSCL2|YSCL1|YSCL0|Y SCROLL     |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Mode         |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 18  12  | RC7 | RC6 | RC5 | RC4 | RC3 | RC2 | RC1 | RC0 |RASTER       |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 19  13  |LPX7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |LPX0 |LIGHT PEN X  |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 20  14  |LPY7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |LPY0 |LIGHT PEN Y  |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 21  15  | SE7 |     |     |     |     |     |     | SE0 |SPRITE       |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |ENABLE       |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |(ON/OFF)     |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 22  16  |N.C. |N.C. | RST | MCM |CSEL |XSCL2|XSCL1|XSCL0|X SCROLL     |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |MODE         |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 23  17  |SEX7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |SEX0 |SPRITE       |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |EXPAND Y     |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 24  18  |VS13 |VS12 |VS11 |VS10 |CB13 |CB12 |CB11 |N.C. |SCREEN       |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Character    |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Memory       |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 25  19  |IRQ  |N.C. |N.C. |N.C. |LPIRQ|ISSC |ISBC |RIRIQ|Interrupt    |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Request's    |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 26  1A  |N.C. |N.C. |N.C. |N.C. |MLPI |MISSC|MISBC|MRIRQ|Interrupt    |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Request      |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |MASKS        |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 27  1B  |BSP7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |BSP0 |Background   |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Sprite       |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |PRIORITY     |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 28  1C  |SCM7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |SCM0 |MULTICOLOR   |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |SPRITE       |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |SELECT       |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 29  1D  |SEXX7|     |     |     |     |     |     |SEXX0|SPRITE       |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |EXPAND X     |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 30  1E  |SSC7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |SSC0 |Sprite-Sprite|
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |COLLISION    |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 31  1F  |SBC7 |     |     |     |     |     |     |SBC0 |Sprite-      |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |Background   |
|         |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |     |COLLISION    |
+---------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+

           COLOR CODES
            DEC  HEX    COLOR
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 32  20  |  0    0     BLACK     |EXT 1|     |     |     |EXTERIOR COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 33  21  |  1    1     WHITE     |BKGD0|     |     |     |BACKGROUND 0 |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 34  22  |  2    2     RED       |BKGD1|     |     |     |BACKGROUND 1 |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 35  23  |  3    3     CYAN      |BKGD2|     |     |     |BACKGROUND 2 |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 36  24  |  4    4     PURPLE    |BKGD3|     |     |     |BACKGROUND 3 |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 37  25  |  5    5     GREEN     |SMC 0|     |     |     |   SPRITE    |
|         |                       |     |     |     |     |MULTICOLOR 0 |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 38  26  |  6    6     BLUE      |SMC 1|     |     |     |   SPRITE    |
|         |                       |     |     |     |     |MULTICOLOR 1 |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 39  27  |  7    7     YELLOW    |S0COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 0 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 40  28  |  8    8     ORANGE    |S1COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 1 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 41  29  |  9    9     BROWN     |S2COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 2 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 42  2A  | 10    A     LT RED    |S3COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 3 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 43  2B  | 11    B     GRAY 1    |S4COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 4 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 44  2C  | 12    C     GRAY 2    |S5COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 5 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 45  2D  | 13    D     LT GREEN  |S6COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 6 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
| 46  2E  | 14    E     LT BLUE   |S7COL|     |     |     |SPRITE 7 COL |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+
|         | 15    F     GRAY 3    |     |     |     |     |             |
+---------+-----------------------+-----+-----+-----+-----+-------------+

LEGEND:
ONLY COLORS 0-7 MAY BE USED IN MULTICOLOR CHARACTER MODE.



APPENDIX P

COMMODORE 64 SOUND CONTROL SETTINGS


  This  handy  table  gives  you  the key numbers you need to use in your
sound  programs,  according  to  which of the Commodore 64's 3 voices you
want to use. To set or adjust a sound control in your BASIC program, just
POKE  the  number  from  the second column, followed by a comma (,) and a
number  from  the  chart ... like this: POKE 54276,17 (Selects a Triangle
Waveform for VOICE 1).
  Remember  that  you  must set the VOLUME before you can generate sound.
POKE  54296  followed  by a number from 0 to 15 sets the volume for all 3
voices.
  It takes 2 separate POKEs to generate each musical note ... for example
POKE 54273,34: POKE 54272,75 designates low C in the sample scale bellow.
  Also  ...  you aren't limited to the numbers shown in the tables. If 34
doesn't sound "right" for a low C, try 35. To provide a higher SUSTAIN or
ATTACK  rate than those shown,  add two or more SUSTAIN numbers together.
(Examples:  POKE  54277,96  combines  two  attack rates (32 and 64) for a
combined  higher  attack  rate  ...  but ... POKE 54277,20 provides a low
attack rate (16) and a medium decay rate (4).


+----------------------------------------------------------------------------+
|SETTING VOLUME -- SAME FOR ALL 3 VOICES                                     |
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
|VOLUME CONTROL|POKE54296| Settings from 0 (off) to 15 (loudest)             |
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
                              VOICE NUMBER 1
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
|TO CONTROL    |POKE THIS|         FOLLOWED BY ONE OF THESE NUMBERS          |
|THIS SETTING: |NUMBER:  | (0 to 15 ... or ... 0 to 255 depending on range)  |
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
|TO PLAY A NOTE|      C  | C#| D | D#| E | F | F#| G | G#| A | A#| B | C | C#|
|HIGH FREQUENCY|54273 34 | 36| 38| 40| 43| 45| 48| 51| 54| 57| 61| 64| 68| 72|
|LOW FREQUENCY |54272 75 | 85|126|200| 52|198|127| 97|111|172|126|188|149|169|
+--------------+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|WAVEFORM      |  POKE   |  TRIANGLE  |  SAWTOOTH  |   PULSE    |   NOISE    |
|              |  54276  |     17     |     33     |     65     |    129     |
+--------------+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|PULSE RATE (Pulse Waveform)                                                 |
|HI POLSE      |  54275  |   A value of 0 to 15  (for Pulse waveform only)   |
|LO POLSE      |  54274  |   A value of 0 to 255 (for Pulse waveform only)   |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|ATTACK/       |  POKE   | ATK4 | ATK3 | ATK2 | ATK1 | DEC4| DEC3| DEC2| DEC1|
|       DECAY  |  54277  | 128  |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|SUSTAIN/      |  POKE   | SUS4 | SUS3 | SUS2 | SUS1 | REL4| REL3| REL2| REL1|
|       RELEASE|  54278  | 128  |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
                              VOICE NUMBER 2
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
|TO CONTROL    |POKE THIS|         FOLLOWED BY ONE OF THESE NUMBERS          |
|THIS SETTING: |NUMBER:  | (0 to 15 ... or ... 0 to 255 depending on range)  |
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
|TO PLAY A NOTE|      C  | C#| D | D#| E | F | F#| G | G#| A | A#| B | C | C#|
|HIGH FREQUENCY|54280 34 | 36| 38| 40| 43| 45| 48| 51| 54| 57| 61| 64| 68| 72|
|LOW FREQUENCY |54279 75 | 85|126|200| 52|198|127| 97|111|172|126|188|149|169|
+--------------+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|WAVEFORM      |  POKE   |  TRIANGLE  |  SAWTOOTH  |   PULSE    |   NOISE    |
|              |  54283  |     17     |     33     |     65     |    129     |
+--------------+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|PULSE RATE (Pulse Waveform)                                                 |
|HI POLSE      |  54282  |   A value of 0 to 15  (for Pulse waveform only)   |
|LO POLSE      |  54281  |   A value of 0 to 255 (for Pulse waveform only)   |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|ATTACK/       |  POKE   | ATK4 | ATK3 | ATK2 | ATK1 | DEC4| DEC3| DEC2| DEC1|
|       DECAY  |  54284  | 128  |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|SUSTAIN/      |  POKE   | SUS4 | SUS3 | SUS2 | SUS1 | REL4| REL3| REL2| REL1|
|       RELEASE|  54285  | 128  |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
                              VOICE NUMBER 3
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
|TO CONTROL    |POKE THIS|         FOLLOWED BY ONE OF THESE NUMBERS          |
|THIS SETTING: |NUMBER:  | (0 to 15 ... or ... 0 to 255 depending on range)  |
+--------------+---------+---------------------------------------------------+
|TO PLAY A NOTE|      C  | C#| D | D#| E | F | F#| G | G#| A | A#| B | C | C#|
|HIGH FREQUENCY|54287 34 | 36| 38| 40| 43| 45| 48| 51| 54| 57| 61| 64| 68| 72|
|LOW FREQUENCY |54286 75 | 85|126|200| 52|198|127| 97|111|172|126|188|149|169|
+--------------+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|WAVEFORM      |  POKE   |  TRIANGLE  |  SAWTOOTH  |   PULSE    |   NOISE    |
|              |  54290  |     17     |     33     |     65     |    129     |
+--------------+---------+------------+------------+------------+------------+
|PULSE RATE (Pulse Waveform)                                                 |
|HI POLSE      |  54289  |   A value of 0 to 15  (for Pulse waveform only)   |
|LO POLSE      |  54288  |   A value of 0 to 255 (for Pulse waveform only)   |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|ATTACK/       |  POKE   | ATK4 | ATK3 | ATK2 | ATK1 | DEC4| DEC3| DEC2| DEC1|
|       DECAY  |  54291  | 128  |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+
|SUSTAIN/      |  POKE   | SUS4 | SUS3 | SUS2 | SUS1 | REL4| REL3| REL2| REL1|
|       RELEASE|  54292  | 128  |  64  |  32  |  16  |  8  |  4  |  2  |  1  |
+--------------+---------+------+------+------+------+-----+-----+-----+-----+


TRY THESE SETTINGS TO SIMULATE DIFFERENT INSTRUMENTS

+------------+----------+--------------+---------------+----------------+
| Instrument | Waveform | Attack/Decay |Sustain/Release| Pulse Rate     |
+------------+----------+--------------+---------------+----------------+
| Piano      | Pulse    |       9      |        0      | Hi-0, Lo-255   |
| Flute      | Triangle |      96      |        0      | Not applicable |
| Harpsichord| Sawtooth |       9      |        0      | Not applicable |
| Xylophone  | Triangle |       9      |        0      | Not applicable |
| Organ      | Triangle |       0      |      240      | Not applicable |
| Colliape   | Triangle |       0      |      240      | Not applicable |
| Accordian  | Triangle |     102      |        0      | Not applicable |
| Trumpet    | Sawtooth |      96      |        0      | Not applicable |
+------------+----------+--------------+---------------+----------------+

MEANINGS OF SOUND TERMS

ADSR     -- Attack/Decay/Sustain/Release
Attack   -- Rate sound rises to peak volume
Decay    -- Rate sound falls from peak volume to Sustain level
Sustain  -- Prolong note at certain volume
Release  -- Rate at which volume falls from Sustain level
Waveform -- "Shape" of sound wave
Pulse    -- Tone quality of Pulse Waveform

NOTE: Attack/Decay and Sustain/Release settings should always be POKEd in
your program BEFORE the Waveform is POKEd.



INDEX

A
 Abbreviations, BASIC commands, D
 Accesories, INTRODUCTION, A
 Addition, 2.4-2.5, C
 AND operator, 5.4, C
 Animation, 4.1, 5.6, 6.2, E, G
 Arithmetic, Operators, 2.4-2.5, C
 Arithmetic, Formulas, 2.4-2.5, C, H
 Arrays, 8.3-8.6
 ASC function, 4.8, C, F
 ASCII character codes, F

B
 BASIC
   abbreviations, D
   commands, C
   numeric functions, C
   operators, 2.4, C
   other functions, C
   statements, C
   string functions, C
   variables, 3.3, C
 Bibliography, N
 Binary arithmetic, 6.3-6.4
 Bit, 6.3-6.4
 Business aids, A
 Byte, 6.4

C
 Calculations, 2.4-2.6
 Cassette tape recorder (audio), 1.1, 2.3
 Cassette tape recorder (video), 1.3
 Cassette port, 1.1
 CHR$ function, 3.3, 4.3, 4.8, 5.3, C, F, K
 CLR statement, C
 CLR/HOME key, 2.1, 3.1, 4.2
 Clock, C
 CLOSE statement, B, C
 Color
   adjustment, 1.5
   CHR$ codes, 5.3
   keys, 5.1-5.2
   memory map, 5.5, G
   PEEKS and POKES, 5.4
   screen and border, 5.4-5.5, G
 Commands, BASIC, C
 Commodore key, (see graphic keys)
 Connections
   optional, 1.3
   rear, 1.1
   side panel, 1.1
   TV/Monitor, 1.2
 CONT command, C
 ConTRoL key, 1.5, 2.1
 COSine function, C
 CuRSoR keys, 1.4, 2.1, 3.2
 Correcting errors, 3.2
 Cursor, 1.4

D
 DATASSETTE recorder, (see cassette tape recorder, audio)
 Data, loading and saving (disk), 2.3, C
 Data, loading and saving (tape), 2.3, C
 DATA statement, 6.2, 6.3, 7.4, 7.6, 8.1, C
 DEFine statement, C
 Delay loop, 5.4, 5.8
 DELete key, 2.1
 DIMension statement, 8.4, C
 Division, 2.4-2.5, C
 Duration, (see FOR ... NEXT)

E
 Editing program, 2.1, 3.2
 END statement, 3.4, C
 Equal, not-equal-to, signs, 2.4-2.5, 3.4, C
 Equations, 3.4, C
 Error messages, 2.4, L
 Expansion port, I
 EXPonent function, C
 Exponentiation, 2.4-2.5, C

F
 Files, (tape), 2.3, B, C
 Files, (disk), 2.3, C
 FOR statement, 3.5, C
 FRE function, C
 Functions, C

G
 Game controls and ports, 1.1, I
 GET statement, 4.4, C
 GET# statement, C
 Getting started, 2.1-2.6
 GOSUB statement, C
 GOTO (GO TO) statement, 3.1, C
 Graphic keys, 2.1, 5.1-5.2, 5.4, E
 Graphic symbols, (see graphic keys)
 Greater than, 3.4, C

H
 Hyperbolic functions, H

I
 IEEE-488 Interface, A
 IF ... THEN statement, 3.4, C
 INPUT statement, 4.3, C
 INPUT# statement, C
 INSerT key, 2.1, 3.2
 INTeger function, 4.5, C
 I/O pinouts, I
 I/O ports, 1.1-1.3

J
 Joysticks, 1.1, I

K
 Keyboard, 2.1-2.2

L
 LEFT$ function, C
 LENgth function, 6.4, C
 Less than, 3.4, C
 LET statement, C
 LIST command, 3.1-3.2, C
 LOAD command, 2.3, C
 LOADing programs from tape, 2.3, C
 LOADing programs from disk, 2.3, C
 LOGarithm, C
 Loops, 3.5, 4.2-4.3
 Lower Case characters, 2.1

M
 Mathematics
   formulas, 2.4-2.5
   function table, H
   symbols, 2.4-2.5, 3.4
 Memory maps, 5.5, G, O, P
 MID$ function, 6.4, C
 Modulator, RF, 1.2-1.3
 Multiplication, 2.4-2.5, C
 Music, 7.1-7.8

N
 Names
   program, 2.3, C
   variable, 3.3, C
 NEW command, 3.1, C
 NEXT statement, 3.5, C
 NOT operator, C
 Numeric variables, 3.3

O
 ON statement, C
 OPEN statement, C
 Operators
   arithmetic, 2.4, C
   logical, C
   relational, 3.4, C

P
 Parentheses, 2.5
 PEEK function, 5.4, 5.6
 Peripherals, 1.1-1.3
 POKE statement, 5.4
 Ports, I/O, 1.1, I
 POS function, C
 PRINT statement, 2.4, C
 PRINT# statement, C
 Precedence, 2.5
 Programs
   editing, 2.1, 3.2
   line numbering, 3.1
   loading/saving (tape), 2.3, C
   loading/saving (disk), 2.3, C
 Prompt, 4.3

Q
 Quotation marks, 2.4

R
 RaNDom function, 4.5-4.8, C
 Random numbers, 4.5-4.8
 READ statement, 8.1-8.2, C
 Reading from tape, B
 REMark statement, 4.2, C
 Reserved words, (see Commands, BASIC)
 RESTORE key, 2.1-2.2
 RESTORE statement, 8.1, C
 RETURN key, 2.1-2.2
 RETURN statement, C
 RIGHT$ function, C
 RUN command, C
 RUN/STOP key, 2.1, 3.1

S
 SAVE command, 2.3, C
 Saving programs (tape), 2.3, C
 Saving programs (disk), 2.3, C
 Screen memory maps, 5.5, G
 SGN function, C
 SHIFT key, 2.1-2.2
 SINe function, C
 Sound effects, 7.7-7.8
 SPC function, 8.6, C
 SPRITE EDITOR, INTRODUCTION
 SPRITE graphics, 6.1-6.3
 SQuaRe function, C
 STOP command, C
 STOP key, 2.1
 String variables, 3.3
 STR$ function, C
 Subscripted variables, 8.3
 Subtraction, 2.4-2.5, C
 SYNTAX ERROR, 2.4
 SYS statement, C

T
 TAB function, C
 TAN function, C
 TI variable, C
 TI$ variable, C
 Time clock, C
 TV connections, 1.2-1.3

U
 Upper/Lower Case mode, 2.1, E
 USR function, C
 User defined function, (see DEF)

V
 VALue function, 6.4, C
 Variables
   array, 8.3-8.6, C
   dimensions, 8.4-8.6, C
   floating point, 3.3, C
   integer, 3.3, C
   numeric, 3.3, 4.3, C
   string ($), 3.3, 4.3, C
 VERIFY command, C
 Voice, 7.1-7.8, P

W
 WAIT command, C
 Writing to tape, B

Z,
 Z-80, INTRODUCTION, A



Commodore  hopes  you've enjoyed the COMMODORE 64 USER'S GUIDE.  Although
this  manual  contains  some  programming information and tips, it is NOT
intended to be a Programmer's Reference Manual.  For those of you who are
advanced  programmers  and computer hobbyists Commodore suggests that you
consider  purchasing  COMMODORE 64 PROGRAMMER'S REFERENCE GUIDE available
through your local Commodore dealer.


In addition updates and corrections as well as programming hints and tips
are available in the COMMODORE and POWER PLAY magazines, on the COMMODORE
database  of  the  COMPUSERVE  INFORMATION  NETWORK,  accessed  through a
VICMODEM.



COMMODORE 64 QUICK REFERENCE CARD


SIMPLE VARIABLES

TYPE     NAME    RANGE
Real     XY      +/-1.70141183E+38
                 +/-2.93873588E-39
Integer  XY%     +32767...-32768
String   XY$     0 to 255 characters

X is a letter (A-Z). Y is a letter or number (0-9). Variable names can be
more than 2 characters, but only the first two are recognized.


ARRAY VARIABLES

TYPE                 NAME
Single Dimension     XY(5)
Two-Dimension        XY(5,5)
Three-Dimension      XY(5,5,5)

Arrays  of  up  to  eleven  elements  (subscripts 0-10) can be used where
needed.  Arrays  with  more  than eleven elements need to be DIMensioned.


ALGEBRAIC OPERATIONS

=   Assigns value to variable
-   Negation
^   Exponentiation
*   Multiplication
/   Division
+   Addition
-   Subtraction


RELATION AND LOGICAL OPERATORS

=   Equal
<>  Not Equal
<   Less Than
>   Greater Than
<=  Less Than or Equal To
>=  Greater Than or Equal To
NOT Logical "Not"
AND Logical "And"
OR  Logical "Or"

Expressions equals 1 if true, 0 if false.


SYSTEM COMMANDS

LOAD "NAME"     Loads a program from tape
SAVE "NAME"     Saves a program on tape
LOAD "NAME",8   Loads a program from disk
SAVE "NAME",8   Saves a program to disk
VERIFY "NAME"   Verifies that program was SAVEd without errors
RUN             Executes a program
RUN xxx         Executes program starting at line xxx
STOP            Halts execution
END             Ends execution
CONT            Continues program execution from line
                where program was halted
PEEK(X)         Returns contents of memory location X
POKE X,Y        Changes contents of location X to value Y
SYS xxxxx       Jumps to execute a machine language program,
                starting at xxxxx
WAIT X,Y,Z      Program waits until contents of location X, when EORed
                with Z and ANDed with Y, is nonzero.
USR(X)          Passes value of X to a machine language subroutine


EDITING AND FORMATTING COMMANDS

LIST            Lists entire program
LIST A-B        Lists from line A to line B
REM Message     Comment message can be listed but is ignored
                during program execution
TAB(X)          Used in PRINT statements. Spaces X positions on screen
SPC(X)          PRINTs X blanks on line
POS(X)          Returns current cursor position

CLR/HOME        Positions cursor to left-up corner of screen
SHIFT CLR/HOME  Clears screen and places cursor in "Home" position
SHIFT INS/DEL   Inserts space current cursor position
INST/DEL        Deletes character at current cursor position
CTRL            When used with numeric color key, selects text color. May
                be used in PRINT statement.
CRSR Keys       Moves cursor up, down, left right on screen
Commodore Key   When used with SHIFT selects between upper/lower case and
                graphic display mode. When used with numeric key, selects
                optional text color


ARRAYS AND STRINGS

DIM A(X,Y,Z)    Sets maximum subscripts for A; reserves space for
                (X+1)*(Y+1)*(Z+1) elements starting at A(0,0,0)
LEN(X$)         Returns number of characters in X$
STR$(X)         Returns numeric value of X, converted to a string
VAL(X$)         Returns numeric value of X$, up to first nonnumeric
                character
CHR$(X)         Returns ASCII character whose code is X
ASC(X$)         Returns ASCII code for first character of X$
LEFT$(A$,X)     Returns leftmost X characters of A$
RIGHT$(A$,X)    Returns rightmost X characters of A$
MID$(A$,X,Y)    Returns Y characters of A$ starting at character X


INPUT/OUTPUT COMMANDS

INPUT A$ or A   PRINTs '?' on screen and waits for user to enter
                a string or value
INPUT "ABC";A   PRINTs message and waits for user to enter value.
                Can also INPUT A$
GET A$ or A     Waits for user type one-character value;
                no RETURN needed
DATA A,"B",C    Initializes a set of values that can be used by READ
                statement
READ A$ or A    Assigns next DATA value to A$ or A
RESTORE         Resets data pointer to start READing the DATA list again
PRINT "A=";A    PRINTs string 'A=' and value of A; ';' suppresses spaces;
                ',' tabs data to next field


PROGRAM FLOW

GOTO X          Branches to line X
IF A=3 THEN 10  IF assertion is true THEN execute following part of
                statement. IF false, execute next line number
FOR A=1 to 10   Executes all statements between FOR and corresponding
STEP 2: NEXT    NEXT, with A, going from 1 to 10 by 2. Step size is 1
                unless specified
NEXT A          Defines end of loop. A is optional
GOSUB 2000      Branches to subroutine starting at line 2000
RETURN          Marks end of subroutine. Returns to statement following
                most recent GOSUB
ON X GOTO A,B   Branches to Xth line number on list.
                If X=1 branches to A, etc.
ON X GOSUB A,B  Branches to subroutine at Xth line number in list



ABOUT THE COMMODORE 64 USERS GUIDE...

Outstanding   color  ...  sound  synthesis  ...  graphics  ...  computing
capabilities   ...   the   synergistic   marriage   of   state-of-the-art
technologies.  These  features  make  the  Commodore 64 the most advanced
personal computer in its class.

The Commodore 64 User's Guide helps you get started in computing, even if
you're   never  used  a  computer  before.  Through  clear,  step-by-step
instructions,  you  are  given an insight into the BASIC language and how
the Commodore 64 can be put to a myriad of uses.

For those already familiar with microcomputers,  the advanced programming
sections and appendices explain the enhanced features of the Commodore 64
and how to get the most of these expanded capabilities.

   _____
  /  ___|___
 |  /   |__/  c o m m o d o r e
 |  \___|__\  C O M P U T E R
  \_____|

Commodore Business Machines, Inc. -- Computer Systems Division,
487 Devon Park Drive, Wayne, PA 19087.

DISTRIBUTED BY
Howard W. Sams & Co., Inc.
4300 W. 62nd Street, Indianapolis, Indiana 46268 USA

$12.95/22010

ISBN:0-672-22010-5

*********

End of the Project 64 etext of the Commodore 64 User's Guide.

*********